Open transaction


About - Open Transactions

About the Open-Transactions project.

Financial cryptography software.

What is Open-Transactions?

  • Open-Transactions is an easy-to-use, financial crypto, digital cash and transaction library.
  • Open-Transactions is open-source.
  • Open-Transactions includes a client API, a working server, a cross-platform GUI and a command-line wallet utility.
  • Open-Transactions features: a large variety of financial instruments, markets, basket currencies, unforgeable account balances, digital cash, destruction of account history, Ricardian contracts, Smart Contracts (scriptable clauses), and more.

What does it do?

  • Open-Transactions allows users to issue and manipulate digital assets.
  • Any issuer can sign and distribute new currency contracts in order to create new digital asset types.
  • Users may create many pseudonyms (public keys), each of which may own asset accounts of various types, on OT servers.
  • Users can operate "cash-only" for maximum anonymity, using untraceable digital cash.

Financial Instruments

  • Users can transfer digital assets securely and provably, with receipts signed by all parties.
  • Even an OT server cannot change balances, or forge transactions--since it cannot forge your signature on your receipt.
  • Open-Transactions supports a range of financial instruments such as account transfer, cheques and vouchers (aka "cashier's cheques" or "banker's cheques"), in addition to cash.
  • These instruments are all analogous to the same financial instruments that we all use at normal banks today. Everyone already has an intuitive understanding of these financial instruments, because we use them regularly in our normal daily lives.

Markets, Basket Currencies, and Smart Contracts

  • Open-Transactions also implements higher-level, contract-based transactions such as payment plans and markets with trades.
  • The markets on Open-Transactions support market orders, limit orders, fill-or-kill orders, day orders, stop orders, and stop limits, just like trading on a real market.
  • Basket currencies are also supported, as well as payment plans (recurring payments.)
  • Smart contracts: Multi-party agreements with scriptable clauses... including hooks, callbacks, internal state, etc.
  • Client-side scripting: !/usr/bin/env ot The entire (mostly) high and low level OT API is available within your scripts.

Triple Signed Receipts

  • All of this is accomplished in such a way that all parties are able to prove, at all times, which transactions have cleared and which instruments are authorized, without having to store their entire transaction history, but instead by merely keeping the last signed receipt.
  • Without the special mechanism that makes this possible, all parties would otherwise be forced to store all receipts forever.
  • Nyms and Asset Types have consistent IDs across all OT servers, since the ID is formed by hashing the relevant contract or public key.

Is Open-Transactions centralized?

  • No—quite the opposite. Open-Transactions is highly decentralized.
  • Typical centralized servers have power over their users, but in OT, no server has power over the clients it serves, because:
  1. An OT server does not control user transactions—it merely notarizes them.
  2. Anyone can operate an OT server, and users can go to any OT server to notarize transactions. Thus OT servers compete with each other to attract users to use their notary services.
  3. Anyone can download an OT client, and use it to execute transactions on any OT server, or any group of OT servers.
  4. OT uses triple-signed receipts, so transaction parties have independent cryptographic proof of transactions and balances.
  5. OT servers do not store user assets. Rather, cryptocurrencies are stored in voting pools so the server can't steal them.

In every way, the user is in control, not the server—even when you're using servers you do not trust. These characteristics generate a federated network architecture—similar to the internet, and it has the same virtues as the internet—openness, decentralization, resilience, censorship-resistance, and user control.

The community behind OT is strongly committed to developing systems that give users full control over their own assets and information.

In More Detail...

The server itself is a transaction processor in the cypherpunk tradition. In more detail:

The intention is for this software to be integrated as many places as possible... Games, digital cash wallets, distributed data stores, secure voip apps, anonymous bit torrent networks, mixnets, remailers, nym servers, etc. There are many other potential uses.

opentransactions.org

Open-Transactions · GitHub

Open-Transactions · GitHub
  • C++ 2 3 AGPL-3.0 Updated Oct 22, 2017
  • Open Transactions - Libraries and CLI

    C++ 76 51 5 issues need help Updated Oct 22, 2017
  • Protobuf definitions and validation functions for opentxs messages

    C++ 1 7 MPL-2.0 Updated Oct 22, 2017
  • A QT/C++ client for Open-Transactions.

    C 37 56 Updated Oct 21, 2017
  • Open Transactions - Notary

    C++ 7 24 AGPL-3.0 Updated Oct 1, 2017
  • Open Transactions Request for Comments (RFC) Documentation

    Python 8 AGPL-3.0 Updated Jun 28, 2016
  • C++ 1 4 MIT Updated Mar 11, 2016
  • uses the qrencoder c library to encode QStrings and show them on a QWidget

    C 1 5 Updated Dec 20, 2015
  • Integration Tests for Open Transactions

    Python 5 MPL-2.0 Updated Jun 9, 2015
  • Development of the OTX protocol

    3 2 MPL-2.0 Updated Jun 9, 2015
  • C++ 3 BSD-3-Clause Updated May 19, 2015
  • Legal for Open Transactions

  • Build system for Open-Transactions on Android

    Makefile 1 5 AGPL-3.0 Updated Apr 8, 2015
  • Ultra-high-level client API.

    5 AGPL-3.0 Updated Mar 11, 2015
  • Open Transactions server and client sample data

    Shell 7 MIT Updated Jan 30, 2015
  • Command Line Interface for Open Transactions

    C++ 3 8 CC0-1.0 Updated Sep 11, 2014
  • logos, diagrams, designs, brandings, etc, for Open Transactions project.

    3 MIT Updated Sep 8, 2014
  • C++ 3 Updated Sep 4, 2014
  • Java 1 8 Updated Sep 4, 2014
  • C++ 4 Updated Aug 19, 2014
  • Optimized C library for EC operations on curve secp256k1

    C 237 MIT Updated Aug 19, 2014
  • Backwards Compatible Version of Open-Transactions (use opentxs for new projects)

    C++ 112 89 Updated Jul 28, 2014
  • JavaScript 1 Updated May 21, 2014
  • Homebrew tap for open-transactions for OSX installs

    Ruby 2 Updated Mar 17, 2014
  • The Open Transactions Channel - Videos, Tutorials, Inteviews, Walkthroughs, Demos

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    github.com

    Open Transactions Digital Cash Library

    4 September 2010

    Open Transactions Digital Cash Library

    Fellow Traveller sends:

    WHAT IS “Open Transactions” ?

    — It’s a solid, easy-to-use, CRYPTO and DIGITAL CASH LIBRARY.

    — Including a working SERVER, API, and test CLIENT…

    — It’s OPEN SOURCE, and encapsulates a COMPLETE PROTOCOL for transactions.

    — Featuring:

    …………….UNTRACEABLE DIGITAL CASH (real blinded tokens.)

    …………….SECURE NUMBERED ACCOUNTS (“account” == PGP key.)

    …………….TRIPLE-SIGNED RECEIPTS

    …………….BASKET CURRENCIES

    …………….ANYONE AN ISSUER

    …………….SIGNED XML CONTRACTS

    …………….MANY DIGITAL INSTRUMENTS: transfers, cheques, cash, vouchers…

    — Comes with Makefiles and project files for Windows, Mac OS X and LINUX.

    — Object-oriented, and written in C++ using OpenSSL.

    — With a high-level API in C++ as well as Java (JNI interface)

    — (JNI Interface available to Ruby and Python developers via JRuby and Jython.)

    Source code: http://github.com/FellowTraveler/Open-Transactions

    Wiki: http://github.com/FellowTraveler/Open-Transactions/wiki

    FAQ: http://github.com/FellowTraveler/Open-Transactions/wiki/FAQ

    Sample cash note: http://github.com/FellowTraveler/Open-Transactions/wiki/Sample-Cash

    For a broad overview, the software features:

    — UNTRACEABLE DIGITAL CASH: Fully implemented! Cash withdrawals of any asset type, using Lucre. (Ben Laurie’s implementation of Wagner’s variant on Chaumian blinding.) Once cash is withdrawn, the server has no way of tracking it or linking it back to its next deposit.

    REPEAT: Digital Bearer Certificates—with denominations, mints, expiring tokens, spent token database, the works—fully-operational and ready to integrate with your mixnets, your digital gold currency (or silver), your anonymous network nodes, your bittorrent clients, your remailers, your secure voip apps, your nym servers, your snazzy, new, file-sharing client, and your censorship-resistant, distributed data store. This is what you have been waiting for! Real, open-source, digital cash.

    As well as…

    — ANONYMOUS, NUMBERED ACCOUNTS, secured by public key cryptography. Your PGP key is your account, and the hash of it is your User ID. No other information is stored. Each user can create an unlimited number of asset accounts, of any type, each with its own randomly-generated ID. As long as you connect over Tor and take other similar precautions, there’s no way to connect any of those accounts to you. (See PKTP and DMT for examples of this concept.) You can also create as many User IDs as you wish, each with its own key, and with your wallet software managing all your user IDs and asset accounts across multiple transaction servers and multiple asset types.

    — It’s like PGP FOR MONEY. The idea is to build this so that it supports many cash algorithms, not just Lucre. I’d like to add Chaum’s version, Brands’ version, etc. So that, just like PGP, the software should support as many of the top algorithms as possible, and make it easy to swap them out when necessary.

    — TRIPLE-SIGNED RECEIPTS for account-to-account transfers. This allows the client and server to agree on balances while simultaneously not storing any transaction history. (Client may choose to store his own transaction history.) No money can ever be transferred or withdrawn without an authorizing signature from the account owner. See Bill St. Clair’s excellent Trubanc for an example of this.

    — ANYONE AN ISSUER. Any user can design and issue his own currency: Simply upload the currency contract to any server. Anyone else with a copy of that contract can open an asset account in the new currency type. The currency contract is just an XML file with your digital signature on it. Hashing that file produces the currency ID, which is therefore unique and consistent across all servers. It’s impossible to change any details of the contract, including the URL, the signature, or the public key, without entirely changing the contract’s ID. To those in the know, this means that Open Transactions supports the ‘Ricardian Contract’.

    — BASKET CURRENCIES. Open Transactions can distribute a single currency across MULTIPLE ISSUERS. How is this possible? Users can define “basket” currencies, which the server treats the same as any other currency, but which, behind the scenes, are each simply a list of 5, 10, or 100 OTHER currency contracts. The issuance is delegated to a basket of other currencies. Users can easily define baskets, open accounts based on basket types, and exchange in and out of these basket currencies using the client software. Baskets are an important example of the distribution of risk that I believe is necessary to make digital cash unstoppable online.

    — DISTRIBUTION OF RISK ACROSS MULTIPLE TRANSACTION SERVERS, IN MULTIPLE JURISDICTIONS. The wallet software can store an entire list of transaction servers. Every new server contract that you import to the wallet puts a new server on the list. There will be many such servers, run by multiple entities and run in multiple jurisdictions. Many will run openly and with full access to their local court system. Others will run on anonymous networks. Users will be able to individually choose a server for a certain transaction — or even distribute their assets transparently across a list of different servers.

    — DISTRIBUTED ACCOUNTS. Your wallet software could display a single asset account to you, which it is actually distributing across a list of 10 or 100 servers behind the scenes, using the open transactions protocol. Of course, you choose the servers, the number, the algorithm, etc… and it’s a trust market. In the future, this software will eventually merge into the next generation of anonymous networks. You can be a part of it.

    — SEPARATION OF POWERS. The entities operating the servers are not actually issuing any currencies. Meanwhile the Issuers are not operating any transaction servers. Neither one of them is performing exchanges in or out of the normal banking system, since those services are handled by exchange providers in the various local jurisdictions (all separate entities.) This provides a lot more legal legitimacy and protection to all of the entities involved. Meanwhile all risk is distributed. The issuers distribute their risk across multiple storage companies, and the users distribute their risk across multiple issuers (using basket currencies) and across multiple transaction servers (via their wallet software.)

    The idea of separation of powers was first highlighted to me by Loom where there are many different issuers on a single server. This led me to explore further along the idea of separating and distributing risk across multiple issuers, and multiple servers — which is what led to the development of Open Transactions.

    This product includes software developed by Ben Laurie for use in the Lucre project.

    cryptome.org

    benlaurie/Open-Transactions: Transaction processor featuring Untraceable Digital Cash, Anonymous Numbered Accounts, Triple-Signed Receipts, Basket Currencies, and Signed XML Contracts. Also supports cheques and other instruments... it's like PGP for Money.... Windows, Mac OS X and Linux / C++ (with JNI API for Java, jRuby, Jython, etc) incorporating OpenSSL and Lucre blinded tokens.

    WHAT IS Open Transactions ? -- It's a solid, easy-to-use, CRYPTO and DIGITAL CASH LIBRARY. -- Including an operational CLIENT and SERVER. -- It's OPEN SOURCE, and encapsulates a COMPLETE PROTOCOL for transactions. -- It's object-oriented, and written in C++ using OpenSSL. -- High-level API in Java! (JNI) -- Builds on: **Windows, Mac OS X and LINUX** -- Featuring: ................UNTRACEABLE DIGITAL CASH (real blinded tokens.) ................SECURE NUMBERED ACCOUNTS (an account is a pgp key.) ................TRIPLE-SIGNED RECEIPTS ................BASKET CURRENCIES ................ANYONE AN ISSUER ................SIGNED XML CONTRACTS ................MANY DIGITAL INSTRUMENTS: Cheques, Cash, Vouchers, Transfers... IN DETAIL, THE SOFTWARE FEATURES: -- UNTRACEABLE DIGITAL CASH: Fully implemented! Cash withdrawals of any asset type, using Lucre. (Ben Laurie's implementation of Wagner's variant on Chaumian blinding.) Once cash is withdrawn, the server has no way of tracking it or linking it back to its next deposit. REPEAT: Digital Bearer Certificates--with denominations, mints, expiring tokens, spent token database, the works--fully-operational and ready to integrate with your mixnets, your digital gold currency (or silver), your anonymous network nodes, your bittorrent clients, your remailers, your secure voip apps, your nym servers, your snazzy, new, file-sharing client, and your censorship-resistant, distributed data store. This is what you have been waiting for! Real, open-source, digital cash. As well as... -- ANONYMOUS, NUMBERED ACCOUNTS, secured by public key cryptography. Your PGP key is your account, and the hash of it is your User ID. No other information is stored. Each user can create an unlimited number of asset accounts, of any type, each with its own randomly-generated ID. As long as you connect over Tor and take other similar precautions, there's no way to connect any of those accounts to you. (See PKTP and DMT for examples of this concept.) You can also create as many User IDs as you wish, each with its own key, and with your wallet software managing all your user IDs and asset accounts across multiple transaction servers and multiple asset types. -- It's like PGP FOR MONEY. The idea is to build this so that it supports many cash algorithms, not just Lucre. I'd like to add Chaum's version, Brands' version, etc. So that, just like PGP, the software should support as many of the top algorithms as possible, and make it easy to swap them out when necessary. -- TRIPLE-SIGNED RECEIPTS for account-to-account transfers. This allows the client and server to agree on balances while simultaneously not storing any transaction history. (Client may choose to store his own transaction history.) No money can ever be transferred or withdrawn without an authorizing signature from the account owner. See Bill St. Clair's excellent Trubanc for an example of this. -- ANYONE AN ISSUER. Any user can design and issue his own currency: Simply upload the currency contract to any server. Anyone else with a copy of that contract can open an asset account in the new currency type. The currency contract is just an XML file with your digital signature on it. Hashing that file produces the currency ID, which is therefore unique and consistent across all servers. It's impossible to change any details of the contract, including the URL, the signature, or the public key, without entirely changing the contract's ID. To those in the know, this means that Open Transactions supports the 'Ricardian Contract'. -- BASKET CURRENCIES. Open Transactions can distribute a single currency across MULTIPLE ISSUERS. How is this possible? Users can define basket currencies, which the server treats the same as any other currency, but which, behind the scenes, are each simply a list of 5, 10, or 100 OTHER currency contracts. The issuance is delegated to a basket of other currencies. Users can easily define baskets, open accounts based on basket types, and exchange in and out of these basket currencies using the client software. Baskets are an important example of the distribution of risk that I believe is necessary to make digital cash unstoppable online. -- DISTRIBUTION OF RISK ACROSS MULTIPLE TRANSACTION SERVERS, IN MULTIPLE JURISDICTIONS. The wallet software can store an entire list of transaction servers. Every new server contract that you import to the wallet puts a new server on the list. There will be many such servers, run by multiple entities and run in multiple jurisdictions. Many will run openly and with full access to their local court system. Others will run on anonymous networks. Users will be able to individually choose a server for a certain transaction or even distribute their assets transparently across a list of different servers. -- DISTRIBUTED ACCOUNTS. Your wallet software could display a single asset account to you, which it is actually distributing across a list of 10 or 100 servers behind the scenes, using the open transactions protocol. Of course, you choose the servers, the number, the algorithm, etc. and it's a trust market. In the future, this software will eventually merge into the next generation of anonymous networks. You can be a part of it. -- SEPARATION OF POWERS. The entities operating the servers are not actually issuing any currencies. Meanwhile the Issuers are not operating any transaction servers. Neither one of them is performing exchanges in or out of the normal banking system, since those services are handled by exchange providers in the various local jurisdictions (all separate entities.) This provides a lot more legal legitimacy and protection to all of the entities involved. Meanwhile all risk is distributed. The issuers distribute their risk across multiple storage companies, and the users distribute their risk across multiple issuers (using basket currencies) and across multiple transaction servers (via their wallet software.) The idea of separation of powers was first highlighted to me by Loom where there are many different issuers on a single server. This led me to explore further along the idea of separating and distributing risk across multiple issuers, and multiple servers, which is what led to the development of Open Transactions. This product includes software developed by Ben Laurie for use in the Lucre project.

    github.com

    Which Platform is the Future of Payments?

    Get Trading Recommendations and Read Analysis on Hacked.com for just $39 per month.

    Open Transactions offers much more than just payments.

    Many people in the Bitcoin community have heard about Ripple and Open Transactions, but it seems that these two projects are rather difficult to understand. Most people understand the basic idea of these payment systems allowing Bitcoin-esque frictionless payments for more traditional currencies, but the details of each plan can get rather confusing. People get excited at the prospect of using dollars, euros, or gold backed cryptocurrencies, but how does it all work? Are there really any differences between these two projects? Let’s take a look at the facts to see what both of these projects have to offer.

    Open Transactions

    Open Transactions is basically a collection of federated servers where people can issue their own currencies. Before there was Bitcoin, there were various private currencies available on the Internet, which were sometimes backed by gold. Some examples of these types of digital gold currencies include e-gold and Liberty Reserve. The real problem with these currencies was that governments don’t like competition. In the case of Liberty Dollars, the United States government actually determined the creation of competing currencies that undermine the value of the US dollar as an act of terrorism. With Open Transactions, anyone can store gold, silver, dollars, euros, Apple stock, crude oil futures contracts, or anything else in a safe as the backing for a digital currency. The issuers of the currency use cryptography to ensure that they aren’t allowed to modify the account balances of their users. Each user also receives a receipt after each transaction with their entire account balance, which means the currency can be reissued on a new server if an old one is shutdown or destroyed. This still leaves the problem of third party risk. You have to make sure that someone has the asset they are using to back their new digital currency. One way Open Transactions avoids this problem is through smart contracts. Essentially, bitcoins or any other cryptocurrency can be used as an insurance policy against someone who is issuing a gold-backed digital currency. In a situation where, for whatever reason, the users of one of these digital currencies believes that there is no gold, silver, or other asset in a vault somewhere, they can initiate a claim for bitcoins rather than the physical asset that is supposed to be backing the currency. For example, if you wanted someone to send you some of the gold they were using to backup a currency and it turned out they didn’t have any gold, some bitcoins that were already tied up in a smart contract could be sent instead. This is about as close as you can get to incorporating the trustless properties of Bitcoin into more traditional forms of money.

    Ripple

    The Ripple system is one that takes advantage of IOUs. Users of the payment network can effectively deposit any currency to their Ripple account through a local gateway. It works in a manner similar to the checking accounts that most people have used in the past, but it takes the banks out of the equation. Instead of giving someone a check that can eventually be redeemed for cash from your bank account, you are basically giving someone an IOU that you will be able to fulfill on your own. Those IOUs are then turned into tradeable assets. For example, let’s say that Bob, Alice, and Greg go out to lunch. Bob and Alice trust each other and Alice and Greg trust each other, but Greg and Bob are meeting for the first time. Bob pays for a $30 lunch, and Alice and Greg intend to pay back Bob with $10 each. Bob doesn’t know Greg, but he trusts that Greg will pay back the $10 because Alice trusts Greg. In the Ripple system, the $10 owed to Bob from Greg is as good as $10 in cash to anyone who trusts Greg or Alice. If Bob wanted to send $10 to his nephew for his birthday, he could send him an IOU for the $10 that Greg owes him for lunch. The point of this IOU system is to basically create a cheaper, faster, and more efficient payment network. The speed and efficiency of the payment network is greatly enhanced by the fact that you don’t need to wait for payments to clear.

    Pros and Cons

    Ripple vs Open Transactions is a somewhat controversial topic in the cryptocurrency community, but I have to go with Open Transactions as the superior invention when comparing these two systems side-by-side. These are basically two different brands that offer variations of a similar product or service. Bitcoin purists will probably enjoy Open Transactions due to its reliance on cryptography for the purposes of removing trusted third parties from the world of payments. Having said that, it’s also important to note that Open Transactions is a complete financial cryptography library rather than just a payment network. Open Transactions’s dedication to removing third party trust makes it a more secure and private option for payments, but it can also enter many other parts of the financial world.

    Open Transactions is a more exciting project than Ripple because it aims to replace third parties with cryptographically secure computer code in the areas of payments, exchanges, contract settlements, and more. While it’s true that you only need to trust the people you trust in real life for Ripple to work, the reality is that opening the system up to credit and IOUs means that you’re also opening the system up to defaults. Breaking off the reliance on trusting third parties is also taken to the next level by Open Transactions with features such as voting pools and Lex Cryptographia. Opencoin, the company behind Ripple, acts as basically a central bank behind the Ripple currency because they premined all of the Ripple tokens that are used to pay for transaction fees on the Ripple payment network. I don’t really have a problem with the idea of using a token system for various Bitcoin 2.0 applications, but it seems like it won’t be needed in the case of next level payment solutions. FellowTraveler has also taken at look at some of the pros and cons of Open Transactions, Ripple, and other payment systems on the Open Transactions forum, and I highly recommend taking a look at some of his thoughts on the matter.

    www.cryptocoinsnews.com

    Как создать криптовалюту: пошаговая инструкция

    Июнь 01 13:00 2017

      Начать торговать на криптовалюте с бесплатными 10 000$ на учебном счете!

    Наверняка все современные интернет пользователи не понаслышке знают, что собой представляет криптографические монета. Более того, сегодня в сети можно отыскать миллионы различных способов стабильного заработка с помощью криптовалют. Однако мало кто задумывается о том, что при большом желании можно создать собственную цифровую валюту. Давайте посмотрим, что именно потребуется для реализации этой задумки.

    Первая криптографическая монета, а именно Биткоин, появилась в 2008 году. Если задуматься, то можно прийти к выводу, что за этот промежуток времени интернет должен быть уже буквально переполненным на различные цифровые валюты. Тем не менее, это не означает, что данный аспект свидетельствует о том, что вам необходимо отказываться от идеи создания собственного актива.

    В большинстве своем пользователи сконцентрированы на майнинге или на заработке посредством сбора крипты с кранов. Поэтому мало кто пытается создавать собственные денежные единицы.

    Условия, при которых возможно создание криптовалюты

    Разумеется, что у вас должно быть соответствующее железо, а также желание усваивать огромное количество новой информации. Создание новой криптографической монеты – отнюдь не пятиминутное дело, поэтому тщательно подготовьте себя к кропотливой работе.

    Если вы хотите понять сути функционирования цифровой валюты, а также данный финансовый инструмент интересен вам как реальный источник для заработка, то в таком случае, разработка собственной монеты станет для вас идеальным вариантом.

    На сегодняшний день, в интернете можно отыскать огромное количество информации, которая позволит в дальнейшем изучить процедуру создания новой криптовалюты. Отдельно хочется выделить портал  Github.com. Прежде всего, внимания заслуживает тот факт, что на этом ресурсе хранится огромнейшее количество различных важных сведений.

    Преимущество подобных сайтов заключается в том, что совершенно необязательно создавать валюту с нуля, поскольку в рассматриваемой сфере существует множество полезного опыта, практических наработок, которые при желании можно использовать.

    Особенности загрузки криптографических библиотек

    Библиотека – расширение, которое требуется для исходного кода криптовалюты. Без этого элемента предварительно скаченный алгоритм попросту не будет функционировать надлежащим образом.

    Как только библиотека скачаны, начинается самый неординарный этап создания монеты. Вам необходимо открыть исходный код, который, по сути, является готовым активом, но не сгенерированным именно в цифровую валюту. После этого, введите название для своей крипты.

    Чтобы каждый новичок максимально понял суть этой фазы, продемонстрируем на конкретных примерах. Предположим, наша криптовалюта будет называться Greencoin. Соответственно, при работе с программным кодом, пользователю заменять первоначально заданные технические слова:

    • Bitcoin – Greencoin
    • BITCOIN – GREENCOIN
    • bitcoin – greencoin
    • bit – green
    • BIT – GREEN

    Чтобы самостоятельно не сидеть часами в поисках необходимых технических слов, можно использовать соответствующее программное обеспечение. По большей части, софт подобной направленности находится в бесплатном доступе. Однако чтобы использовать некоторые алгоритмы, пользователю придется заплатить. Рассмотрим несколько эффективных программ для различных операционных систем.

    Разумеется, что наибольший ассортимент софта разработан для самой популярной операционной системы: Search and Replace, HandyFile Find and Replace. Описанные программы бесплатны, их эффективность подтверждается положительными отзывами других пользователей.

    Что касается операционных систем Linux MacOS, то здесь выбор не столь широк. Впрочем, это не означает, что вы не сможете подобрать бесплатное программное обеспечение. Например, для Линукс подойдет Regexxer, а для Мак TextWrangler. Обе программы также на практике доказали свою эффективность.

    Процесс настройки сетевых портов

    Сразу же следует сказать о том, что это едва ли не самый сложный этап создания собственной криптовалюты, поэтому к настройке сетевых портов относится с максимальной серьезностью и ответственностью. В том случае, если вы допустите какую-либо ошибку, то в дальнейшем возникнут сбои при осуществлении транзакций. Естественно, это негативно отразится на имидже цифровой валюты.

    Как только будет выполнена настройка сетевых портов, нет никаких препятствий  для осуществления транзакций, соответственно можно смело переходить к генерации криптовалюты. Вне зависимости от того, какую крипту генерируем, этот процесс осуществляется блоками. В параметрах указывается, какое кол-во единиц цифровой валюты можно создать за один подход, при этом проводится настройка суммарного количества цифровой валюты.

    Система обеспечения безопасности

    Все нюансы, касающиеся безопасности совершаемых пользователями транзакций имеют необычайное значение. Особенно если мы говорим о разработке криптографической монеты. В ходе создания рассматриваемого финансового актива, вам необходимо сгенерировать пользовательский ключ, который является основным инструментом для осуществления транзакций в безопасном режиме.

    Программное обеспечение для создания собственной криптовалюты

    Реализация идеи создания собственной криптографической монеты также возможна с помощью комплексного пакета программного обеспечения Open-Transaction. Этот софт позволяет создавать неограниченное кол-во центров эмиссии и различных активов.

    Пакет программ существенно упростить процедуру разработки уникальных цифровых валют, ценных бумаг, при этом вы сможете максимально эффективно управлять дивидендами, а также контролировать учетные записи пользователей.

    Программный пакет будет полезен абсолютно на всех этапах использования валюты: от создания до популяризации. При необходимости софт поможет подключать к системе интернет-магазины и всевозможные подобные порталы.

    В итоге, программное обеспечение предоставит независимую финансовую модель. Максимальная конфиденциальность гарантирована для каждого пользователя, обеспечивается максимальная безопасность совершаемых транзакций.

    Покупка готовой криптовалюты

    Совершенно необязательно ломать голову над созданием цифровой валюты, поскольку можно заказать проект «под ключ» у профессионалов. Например, на ресурсе Cryptoteam. В результате, специалисты создадут для вас уникальную крипту, с уникальными учетными записями и элементами майнинга и выводом его на биржу для заработка. Название вы выбираете самостоятельно.

    Никогда не забывайте о важности маркетинговой компании. Если вы планируете реализовать возможность вывода криптографической монеты на соответствующие биржи, то в таком случае, вам необходимо посоветоваться со специалистами относительно эффективных методов продвижения денежной единицы.

    На сегодняшний день, активно используется свыше 200 криптовалют, а это означает, что заполучить место под солнцем очень непросто.

      Начать торговать на криптовалюте с бесплатными 10 000$ на учебном счете!

    Загрузка...  

    richinvest.biz

    Settle open transactions - customer (form) [AX 2012]

    Field

    Description

    Marked total

    The balance of the transactions that are marked to be settled, minus the discount amount, in the currency of the legal entity that is associated with the customer account.

    Marked total in %1

    The remaining amount to be settled, minus the discount amount, in the currency of the customer, primary payment, or journal transaction.

    Note

    The name of the field includes the currency code.

    Customer balance

    The customer balance in the currency of the legal entity that is associated with the customer account.

    Estimated cash discount

    The expected total discount amount in the accounting currency of the legal entity that is associated with the customer account. If the Full settlement check box is selected for any of the marked lines, the estimated cash discount includes the full settlement discount amount.

    Note

    (AUT, CHE, DEU) Full settlement functionality is available only if the Full settlement configuration key is selected, the primary address of the legal entity is in Austria, Germany, or Switzerland, and you open the form from a payment journal.

    Estimated cash discount in %1

    The expected total discount amount in the currency of the customer, primary payment, or journal transaction.

    Note

    The name of the field includes the currency code. If you opened this form from the All customers list page, the currency is taken from the customer account. If you opened this form from the All customers list page and a primary payment is selected, the currency is taken from the payment. If you opened the form from a journal form, the currency is taken from the journal transaction.

    Payment proposal

    Select this check box to add the marked transactions to a payment proposal. When you click Close, the Customer payment proposal form opens, where you can transfer the transactions to the payment proposal.

    This field is available only when you open the form from a payment journal.

    Transferred

    The amount that was transferred from the voucher or payment, in the currency of the legal entity that is associated with the account.

    Note

    This field is available only when you open the form from a Journal voucher form.

    Transferred in %1

    The payment amount that was transferred from the voucher, in the currency of the customer, primary payment, or journal transaction.

    Note

    This field is available only when you open the form from a Journal voucher form. The name of the field includes the currency code.

    Settlement posting date

    Select how to determine the settlement posting date, if the settlement of a transaction causes an exchange difference:

    • Latest date – Use the date of the most recent transaction involved in the settlement.

    • Today's date – Use today's date.

    • Selected date – Use the date that you specify. The date must be the same as, or later than, the date of the most recent transaction involved in the settlement. If you select this option, specify the posting date for the selected transactions.

    Note

    This control is available only when you open the form from the All customers list page or the Customers form.

    Date to use for calculating discounts

    Select how to determine whether a discount should be calculated:

    • Transaction date – Use the transaction date of the payment or credit note.

    • Selected date – Use the date that you specify. If you select this option, specify the discount date for the selected transactions.

    Note

    This control is available only when you open the form from a list page or detail form.

    Show

    Select one of the following filter settings:

    • All – All transactions.

    • Letter of credit – Only letter of credit transactions.

    • Import collection – Only import collection transactions.

    The default selection is All.

    Is marked

    If an icon is displayed, the transaction is marked for settlement.

    Note

    This control is available only when you open the form from the All customers list page or the Customers form.

    Primary payment

    If an icon is displayed, the transaction is the primary payment for an invoice.

    Note

    This control is available only when you open the form from the All customers list page or the Customers form.

    Mark

    Select this check box to mark the transaction for settlement.

    Full settlement

    Select this check box to settle the invoice with this payment, even if the balance is not zero. The amount shown in the Marked total field for the invoice will be cleared when you close the form.

    An icon is displayed instead of the check box if full settlement is not available for the selected invoice. This can occur if you are using centralized payments and the legal entity of the invoice does not have its primary address in Austria, Germany, or Switzerland.

    Note

    (AUT, CHE, DEU) This field is available only if the Full settlement configuration key is selected, the primary address of the legal entity is in Austria, Germany, or Switzerland, and you open the form from a payment journal.

    Use cash discount

    View or select an option to use the cash discount after the discount date. You can see the amount minus the cash discount in the Amount to settle field. The options are as follows:

    • Normal – The cash discount is used only if the invoice is settled by the date that is defined for the cash discount.

    • Always – The last available cash discount is used if the invoice is settled after the cash discount date. If the invoice is settled by the date that is defined for the cash discount, the cash discount amount is the same as if you select Normal.

    • Never – No cash discount is applied, even if the invoice is settled on or before the discount date.

    This field works with the Calculate cash discounts for partial payments and Calculate cash discounts for credit notes fields in the Accounts receivable parameters form. If you select Normal in this field, the parameter fields apply to the settlement. If you select Always, the cash discount is always taken. If you select Never, the cash discount is never taken.

    Voucher

    The voucher number for the attached ledger transaction. The voucher number is determined by the voucher series as it was defined in the Number sequences form.

    Account

    The customer account that is associated with the transaction.

    Company accounts

    The legal entity that is associated with the customer account for the transaction.

    Date

    The date of the current transaction.

    Due date

    The date that the transaction is due.

    Deadline

    The deadline for confirmation from the bank that payments that are eligible for discounts have been paid.

    Invoice

    The invoice number that the transaction is attached to.

    Billing classification

    The billing classification that was assigned to the invoice when it was created.

    Note

    This control is available only if the Public Sector configuration key is selected.

    Bill ID

    The unique identifier for the bill of exchange. The identifier is used when new bills of exchange are created.

    Note

    This field is available only if you opened the form from a protest bill of exchange journal, redraw bill of exchange journal, remittance journal, or settle bill of exchange journal.

    Sequence number

    Displays 1 for the first draw bill of exchange cycle and 2 for the first redraw bill of exchange cycle.

    If you open this form from a journal and the Bill ID field is blank, 0 is displayed.

    Note

    This field is available only if you opened the form from a protest bill of exchange journal, redraw bill of exchange journal, remittance journal, or settle bill of exchange journal.

    Status

    The status of the bill of exchange:

    • None – No bill of exchange has been drawn.

    • Drawn – The bill of exchange has been posted in a draw bill of exchange journal.

    • Remitted – The bill of exchange document has been posted in a remittance journal.

    • Protested – A bill of exchange that was not honored by the bank has been protested in a protest bill of exchange journal.

    • Redrawn – A bill of exchange that was previously protested has been redrawn in a redraw bill of exchange journal.

    • Honored – The bill of exchange has been settled. The settlement might occur before you receive confirmation from the bank.

    Note

    This field is available only if you opened the form from a protest bill of exchange journal, redraw bill of exchange journal, remittance journal, or settle bill of exchange journal.

    Remittance number

    A unique identifier for the remittance file.

    Note

    This field is available only if you opened the form from a protest bill of exchange journal, redraw bill of exchange journal, remittance journal, or settle bill of exchange journal.

    Amount in transaction currency

    The transaction amount in the transaction currency.

    Currency

    The currency code for the transaction.

    Cross rate

    The direct exchange rate between the payment and the invoice, if they are in different currencies and if a primary payment is selected.

    Amount to settle

    The amount of the settlement in the accounting currency of the transaction.

    For a partial payment, this amount should be the amount after the discount has been taken. For more information, see About partial customer payments.

    If the Prioritize settlement check box is selected in the Accounts receivable parameters form, and a partial payment is applied to the transaction, the amount to settle for the transaction is decreased so that the total amount to settle equals the payment amount specified in this form.

    If the Mark lines on free text invoices and interest notes check box is selected in the Accounts receivable parameters form, this amount can be determined by marking invoice lines. For more information, see Mark invoice lines (form).

    Amount to settle in %1

    The amount of the settlement in the currency of the customer, primary payment, or journal transaction.

    Note

    The name of the field includes the currency code. This field is available only when you open the form from a Journal voucher form.

    Bank document number

    The bank document number for the letter of credit.

    Shipment number

    The shipment number for the letter of credit.

    Cash discount date

    The date by which an invoice must be settled to receive a cash discount. The cash discount is posted automatically to the ledger account that is specified for the cash discount. For more information, see About cash discounts.

    Cash discount amount

    The cash discount amount that is included in the customer transaction when the invoice is posted.

    Discount amount in %1

    The amount of the cash discount in the currency of the payment.

    Note

    The name of the field includes the currency code for the payment. This field is available only when you open the form from a payment Journal voucher form.

    Cash discount taken

    The total discount amount that has been taken for prior payments or credit notes.

    Cash discount taken in %1

    The total discount amount that has been taken for prior payments or credit notes, in the currency of the payment.

    Note

    The name of the field includes the currency code for the payment. This field is available only when you open the form from a payment Journal voucher form.

    Cash discount amount to take

    The discount amount to take for the payment or credit note that is being settled with the selected invoice.

    You can change the value in this field in the following situations:

    • The transaction is marked and the form is opened from a payment Journal voucher form.

    • The transaction is marked and Selected date is selected in the Date to use for calculating discounts field.

    For more information, see About partial customer payments.

    If the Full settlement check box is selected for any of the marked lines, the default entry includes the full settlement discount amount.

    Note

    (AUT, CHE, DEU) Full settlement functionality is available only if the Full settlement configuration key is selected, the primary address of the legal entity is in Austria, Germany, or Switzerland, and you open the form from a payment journal.

    Cash discount amount to take in %1

    The discount amount to take for the payment or credit note that is being settled with the selected invoice, in the currency of the payment.

    Note

    The name of the field includes the currency code for the payment. This field is available only when you open the form from a payment Journal voucher form.

    If the Full settlement check box is selected for any of the marked lines, the default entry includes the full settlement discount amount.

    Note

    (AUT, CHE, DEU) Full settlement functionality is available only if the Full settlement configuration key is selected, the primary address of the legal entity is in Austria, Germany, or Switzerland, and you open the form from a payment journal.

    Full settlement cash discount

    The full settlement discount amount for the payment or credit note that is being settled with the selected invoice. This amount is calculated automatically based on the line that has the Full settlement check box marked, minus the amounts in the Cash discount amount and Cash discount taken fields.

    Note

    (AUT, CHE, DEU) This field is available only if the Full settlement configuration key is selected, the primary address of the legal entity is in Austria, Germany, or Switzerland, and you open the form from a payment journal.

    Full settlement cash discount in %1

    The full settlement discount amount for the payment or credit note that is being settled with the selected invoice, in the currency of the payment. This amount is calculated automatically based on the line that has the Full settlement check box marked, minus the amounts in the Discount amount in %1 and Cash discount taken in %1 fields.

    Note

    (AUT, CHE, DEU) This field is available only if the Full settlement configuration key is selected, the primary address of the legal entity is in Austria, Germany, or Switzerland, and you open the form from a payment journal.

    Description

    The description for the current transaction. The description can be inserted automatically when invoices are posted, or you can enter it manually.

    Alternative cash discount account

    You can enter an alternate account for the cash discount that will override the regular posting setup for the current line. For example, if you let customers deduct cash discounts on payments that are made after a payment date, you can track the unauthorized cash discount deductions in a separate account.

    Transaction type

    The transaction type that is attached to the transaction when it is posted, such as Payment or Customer.

    Correction

    If this check box is selected, the current transaction is a correction of another transaction. When credit notes are updated, ledger transactions are debited or credited as reverse entries.

    Posting profile

    The posting profile that is used for the transaction.

    A posting profile can be related to selected customers, groups of customers, or all customers.

    Last foreign currency revaluation adjustment date

    The date of the most recent foreign currency revaluation for the current transaction. You can use the Foreign currency revaluation form to revalue foreign currencies on open customer transactions.

    Last foreign currency revaluation adjustment voucher

    The voucher for the most recent foreign currency revaluation for the transaction.

    Last foreign currency revaluation adjustment rate

    The exchange rate that was used for the most recent foreign currency revaluation for the transaction.

    Billing classification

    The billing classification that was assigned to the invoice when it was created.

    Note

    This control is available only if the Public Sector configuration key is selected.

    Approved by

    The initials of the worker who approved the transaction.

    Approved

    If this check box is selected, the transaction has been approved. The default value for payments comes from the payment journal.

    Document

    The number of the document, such as a bill of exchange, that the transaction is based on.

    Document date

    Enter or view the document date.

    When a customer invoice is entered, the actual date of the invoice is usually used as the posting date. If this is the case, both the due date and the cash discount date are based on the document date.

    Order account

    The order account that is related to the transaction.

    Tax invoice ID - sales

    The identifier for the tax invoice that is generated when value added tax (VAT) is realized. This ID is automatically assigned when the invoice is posted. The ID uses the number sequence that is specified in the General ledger parameters form.

    Note

    (THA) This control is available only to legal entities whose primary address is in Thailand.

    Payment reference

    A reference to a specific payment.

    Method of payment

    The payment method that was used for the customer transaction.

    Payment specification

    Enter a payment specification code, if one is required for the current method of payment.

    Payment specification codes are used with automatic payment transfers to select different levels of payment specifications. Payment specification codes are defined by banks. They must be included in each payment record in the payment transfer file to inform the bank of the level of payment specification for each payment.

    Note

    You must contact your bank for information about how to use the various specification codes.

    Payment

    The terms of payment that were used for the transaction.

    Prepayment journal voucher

    Select this control to specify that the payment is a prepayment that was made by using a prepayment journal voucher. For more information about prepayments and the prepayment journal vouchers, see About prepayments and prepayment journal vouchers.

    Payment step identification

    The payment step that is currently associated with this transaction.

    Note

    This field is available only if the Payment management configuration key is selected.

    Previous payment step ID

    The payment step that was associated with this transaction before it reached the current payment step.

    Note

    This field is available only if the Payment management configuration key is selected.

    Reporting batch

    The reporting batch for payment management.

    Bill ID

    The bill of exchange identifier that corresponds to the transaction.

    Note

    This field is available only if the Bill of exchange configuration key is selected.

    Sequence number

    Displays 1 for the first draw bill of exchange cycle and 2 for the first redraw bill of exchange cycle.

    Status

    The status of the bill of exchange:

    • None – No bill of exchange has been drawn.

    • Drawn – The bill of exchange has been posted in a draw bill of exchange journal.

    • Remitted – The bill of exchange document has been posted in a remittance journal.

    • Protested – A bill of exchange that was not honored by the bank has been protested in a protest bill of exchange journal.

    • Redrawn – A bill of exchange that was previously protested has been redrawn in a redraw bill of exchange journal.

    • Honored – The bill of exchange has been settled. The settlement might occur before you receive confirmation from the bank.

    Remittance number

    A unique identifier for a bank remittance file.

    Note

    This field is available only if the Bill of exchange configuration key is selected.

    Original amount currency

    The total amount of the original transaction in the transaction currency, before any foreign currency revaluations.

    Original amount

    The total transaction amount of the original transaction in the accounting currency.

    Amount in transaction currency

    The open transaction amount in the transaction currency, after foreign currency revaluations.

    Amount

    The open amount of the transaction in the accounting currency.

    Exchange rate adjustment amount

    If an invoice was created in a foreign currency, and if a foreign currency revaluation was made between the time of invoicing and the time of payment, the amount of the foreign currency revaluation is displayed in the accounting currency.

    Settled currency

    The settled part of the amount in the currency shown in the Currency field.

    Amount settled

    The settled part of the amount in the accounting currency. This includes any foreign currency revaluations and penny differences.

    Last settlement voucher

    The voucher number for the most recent settlement.

    Last settlement voucher account number

    The customer account for the most recent settlement voucher.

    Last settlement voucher company

    The legal entity that is associated with the most recent settlement voucher.

    Last settlement

    The date of the most recent settlement.

    Settlement

    If this check box is selected, the transaction can be settled automatically.

    Closed date

    If the transaction has been settled, the date for the full settlement is displayed. This date corresponds to the transaction date of the final payment. If the field is empty, the transaction has not yet been fully settled. For example, if a prepayment that is posted on January 1 is settled against an invoice that is posted on February 1, the invoice date is displayed.

    Close

    The posting profile that is used when payment has been confirmed by the bank and the settlement can be considered closed.

    Cash discount date

    The last payment date on which the customer can receive a cash discount. The date is calculated based on the cash discount terms, as defined in the Cash discounts form. (Click Accounts receivable > Setup > Payment > Cash discounts.)

    Cash discount amount

    The amount of the cash discount that is included in the customer transaction when the invoice is posted.

    Amount in transaction currency

    The amount of the transaction minus the cash discount, in the transaction currency.

    Interest note

    The interest note number for the most recent interest calculation for the transaction.

    Date

    The date of the most recent interest calculation for the transaction.

    Interest date

    The date of the most recent interest note for the transaction.

    Collection letter

    The current collection letter number for the transaction.

    Collection letter code

    The current collection letter code for the transaction.

    Date

    The date of the most recent collection letter for the transaction.

    Valid collection letter code

    The collection letter code to use for the next collection letter for the transaction. For more information, see Valid collection letter code.

    Collections status

    The status of the transaction in the collections process. For more information, see the Collections form and Collections (form).

    Reason code

    The reason code for the current collections status. The reason code is selected when the collections status is changed in the Collections form.

    Reason comment

    The reason comment for the current collections status. The reason comment is entered when the collections status is changed in the Collections form.

    Financial dimensions

    The financial dimensions that were set up in the Financial dimensions form.

    Where the %1 dimension is used

    The account structures and advanced rule structures that use the financial dimensions that you selected in the Financial dimensions or Default financial dimensions field group.

    Note

    The name of the field depends on the selection in the Financial dimensions or Default financial dimensions field group.

    technet.microsoft.com


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