End of end times


End time - Wikipedia

The end time (also called end times, end of time, end of days, last days, final days, or eschaton) is a future time-period described variously in the eschatologies of several world religions (both Abrahamic and non-Abrahamic), which believe that world events will achieve a final climax.

The Abrahamic faiths maintain a linear cosmology, with end-time scenarios containing themes of transformation and redemption. In Judaism, the term "end of days" makes reference to the Messianic Age and includes an in-gathering of the exiled Jewish diaspora, the coming of the Messiah, the resurrection of the righteous and the world to come. Some sects of Christianity depict the end time as a period of tribulation that precedes the second coming of Christ, who will face the Antichrist along with his power structure and usher in the Kingdom of God. However, other Christians believe that the end time represents the personal tribulation experienced before they become enlightened with the Word of God.[1] In Islam, the Day of Judgement is preceded by the appearance of the Mahdi mounted on a white stallion. With the help of Isa (Jesus), the Mahdi will triumph over Masih ad-Dajjal (the false messiah).

Non-Abrahamic faiths tend to have more cyclical world-views, with end-time eschatologies characterized by decay, redemption and rebirth. In Hinduism, the end time occurs when Kalki, the final incarnation of Vishnu, descends atop a white horse and brings an end to the current Kali Yuga. In Buddhism, the Buddha predicted that his teachings would be forgotten after 5,000 years, followed by turmoil. A bodhisattva named Maitreya will appear and rediscover the teaching of dharma. The ultimate destruction of the world will then come through seven suns.

Since the development of the concept of deep time in the 18th century and the calculation of the estimated age of the Earth, scientific discourse about end times has centered on the ultimate fate of the universe. Theories have included the Big Rip, Big Crunch, Big Bounce, and Big Freeze (Heat Death).

Linear cosmology[edit]

Zoroastrianism[edit]

Zoroastrian eschatology is considered one of the oldest in recorded history. The birth of its founder, Zoroaster, is unknown, with scholarly dates ranging from 6th century BCE to 5,500 years earlier. Pliny the Elder even suggests there were two Zoroasters.[2] However, with beliefs paralleling and possibly predating the framework of the major Abrahamic faiths, a fully developed concept of the end of the world was not established in Zoroastrianism until 500 BCE. The Bahman Yasht describes:

At the end of thy tenth hundredth winter, the sun is more unseen and more spotted; the year, month, and day are shorter; and the earth is more barren; and the crop will not yield the seed. And men become more deceitful and more given to vile practices. They will have no gratitude. Honorable wealth will proceed to those of perverted faith. And a dark cloud makes the whole sky night, and it will rain more noxious creatures than water.

A Manichaean battle between the righteous and wicked will be followed by the Frashokereti. On earth, the Saoshyant will arrive as the final savior of mankind, and bring about the resurrection of the dead. The yazatas Airyaman and Atar will melt the metal in the hills and mountains, which will flow as lava across the earth and all mankind, both the living and resurrected, will be required to wade through it. Ashavan will pass through the molten river as if it were warm milk, but the sinful will burn. It will then flow down to hell, where it will annihilate Angra Mainyu and the last vestiges of wickedness.

The righteous will partake of the parahaoma, which will confer immortality upon them. Humanity will become like the Amesha Spentas, living without food, hunger, thirst, weapons or injury. Bodies will become so light as to cast no shadow. All humanity will speak a single language, and belong to a single nation with no borders. All will share a single purpose and goal, joining with Ahura Mazda for a perpetual and divine exaltation.[3][4]

Judaism[edit]

In Judaism, the main textual source for the belief in the end of days and accompanying events is the Tanakh or Hebrew Bible. The Five Books of Moses (the Torah) describe a time when the Jewish people will not be able to keep the Laws of Moses in the Land of Israel, and will be exiled but ultimately redeemed. Major sources for this scenario include the books of Isaiah, Jeremiah and Ezekiel. Other books of the Hebrew Prophets also elaborate about the end of days.[5]

In rabbinic literature, rabbis elaborated and explained the prophecies that were found in the Hebrew Bible, along with oral law and rabbinic traditions about its significance.

The main tenets of Jewish eschatology, in no particular order, include:[5]

Tribulation and the Messianic Age[edit]

Most of tenets of Jewish eschatology appear in the Nevi'im, primarily in the books of Isaiah, Jeremiah and Ezekiel. Moses foretells the end of days in Deuteronomy, describing a time of apostasy, in which people of Israel become "settled upon their lees". They do not keep the Laws of Moses and resort to idolatry.[5]

[You will] corrupt yourselves, and make a graven image, or the likeness of any thing, and shall do evil in the sight of the Lord thy God, to provoke him to anger: 26 I call heaven and earth to witness against you this day, that ye shall soon utterly perish from off the land whereunto ye go over Jordan to possess it; ye shall not prolong your days upon it, but shall utterly be destroyed. 27 And the Lord shall scatter you among the nations, and ye shall be left few in number among the heathen, whither the Lord shall lead you. 28 And there ye shall serve gods, the work of men's hands, wood and stone, which neither see, nor hear, nor eat, nor smell.

The Book of Isaiah describes a time of judgment in Isaiah 2:4: "And he shall judge among the nations, and shall rebuke many people."

The Messianic Age will follow - an era of global peace, free of global strife, and conducive to the knowledge of the creator. A well-known passage from the Book of Isaiah describes this future condition of the world:

They shall beat their swords into plowshares and their spears into pruning hooks; nation will not lift sword against nation and they will no longer study warfare".

Maimonides (1135-1204) further describes the Messianic Era in the Mishneh Torah:

And at that time there will be no hunger or war, no jealousy or rivalry. For the good will be plentiful, and all delicacies available as dust. The entire occupation of the world will be only to know God... the people Israel will be of great wisdom; they will perceive the esoteric truths and comprehend their Creator's wisdom as is the capacity of man. As it is written (Isaiah 11:9): "For the earth shall be filled with the knowledge of God, as the waters cover the sea.

— Mishneh Torah, Laws of Kings 12:5

In the Talmud,[6] the Midrash,[7] and the medieval kabbalistic work, the Zohar,[8] the messiah must arrive before the year 6000 from the time of creation, or before the year 2240 AD. The Midrash comments, "Six eons for going in and coming out, for war and peace. The seventh eon is entirely Shabbat and rest for life everlasting."[7]

The Zohar[9] maintains that the seven days of the week, based on the seven days of creation, correspond to the seven millennia of creation. The seventh day of the week, the Shabbat day of rest, corresponds to the seventh millennium, the age of universal rest, or the Messianic Era. The seventh millennium begins with the year 6000 AM, and is the latest time the Messiah can come. A number of early and late Jewish scholars have written in support of this, including the Ramban,[10]Isaac Abrabanel,[11]Abraham Ibn Ezra,[12] Rabbeinu Bachya,[13] the Vilna Gaon,[14] the Lubavitcher Rebbe,[15] the Ramchal,[16]Aryeh Kaplan[17] and Rebbetzin Esther Jungreis.[18]

Christianity[edit]

Date

Some first century Christians believed Jesus would return during their lifetime. When the converts of Paul in Thessalonica were persecuted by the Roman Empire, they believed the end of days to be imminent.[19]

While some who believe in the literal interpretation of the Bible insist that the prediction of dates or times is futile, others believe Jesus foretold signs of the end of days. The precise time, however, will come like a "thief in the night" (1 Thess. 5:2). They may also refer to Matthew 24:36 in which Jesus is quoted as saying:

"But concerning that day and hour no one knows, not even the angels of heaven, nor the Son, but the Father only."

Great Tribulation

In the New Testament, Jesus refers to this period preceding the end times as the "Great Tribulation" (Matthew 24:21), "Affliction"(Mark 13:19), and "days of vengeance"(Luke 21:22).

The Book of Matthew describes the devastation:

When ye therefore shall see the abomination of desolation, spoken of by Daniel the prophet, stand in the holy place, (whoso readeth, let him understand). Then let them which be in Judaea flee into the mountains. Let him which is on the housetop not come down...Neither let him which is in the field return back to take his clothes, and woe unto them that are with child...For then shall be great tribulation, such as was not since the beginning of the world to this time, no, nor ever shall be. And except those days should be shortened, there should no flesh be saved: but for the elect's sake those days shall be shortened.

The resulting chaos will affect pregnancies, newborns, and a scourge will spread throughout the flesh, save for the elect. The vivid imagery of this section is repeated closely in Mark 13:14–20.

The Gospel of Luke describes a complete unraveling of the social fabric, with widespread calamity and war:

Then he said to them, “Nation will rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom. There will be great earthquakes, and in various places famines and pestilences. And there will be terrors and great signs from heaven. But before all this they will lay their hands on you and persecute you, delivering you up to the synagogues and prisons, and you will be brought before kings and governors for my name's sake. This will be your opportunity to bear witness. Settle it therefore in your minds not to meditate beforehand how to answer, for I will give you a mouth and wisdom, which none of your adversaries will be able to withstand or contradict. You will be delivered up even by parents and brothers and relatives and friends, and some of you they will put to death. You will be hated by all for my name's sake. But not a hair of your head will perish. By your endurance you will gain your lives.

“But when you see Jerusalem surrounded by armies, then know that its desolation has come near. Then let those who are in Judea flee to the mountains, and let those who are inside the city depart, and let not those who are out in the country enter it, for these are days of vengeance, to fulfill all that is written. Alas for women who are pregnant and for those who are nursing infants in those days! For there will be great distress upon the earth and wrath against this people. They will fall by the edge of the sword and be led captive among all nations, and Jerusalem will be trampled underfoot by the Gentiles, until the times of the Gentiles are fulfilled.

“And there will be signs in sun and moon and stars, and on the earth distress of nations in perplexity because of the roaring of the sea and the waves, people fainting with fear and with foreboding of what is coming on the world. For the powers of the heavens will be shaken. And then they will see the Son of Man coming in a cloud with power and great glory. Now when these things begin to take place, straighten up and raise your heads, because your redemption is drawing near.”

And he told them a parable: “Look at the fig tree, and all the trees. As soon as they come out in leaf, you see for yourselves and know that the summer is already near. So also, when you see these things taking place, you know that the kingdom of God is near. Truly, I say to you, this generation will not pass away until all has taken place. Heaven and earth will pass away, but my words will not pass away.
Catholicism[edit]

The Profession of Faith addresses Catholic beliefs concerning the Last Days.[20] Catholicism adheres to the amillennial school of thought, promoted by Augustine of Hippo in his work The City of God.

Protestantism[edit]

Protestants are divided between Millennialists and Amillennialists. Millennialists concentrate on the issue of whether the true believers will see the tribulation or be removed from it by what is referred to as a Pre-Tribulation Rapture. Amillennialists believe that the end times encompass the time from Christ's ascension to the Last day, and maintain that the mention of the "thousand years" in the Book of Revelation is meant to be taken metaphorically (i.e., not literally, or 'spiritually'), a view which continues to cause divisions within evangelical Christianity.

There is a range of eschatological belief in Protestant Christianity. Christian premillennialists who believe that the End Times are occurring now, are usually specific about timelines that climax in the end of the world. For some, Israel, the European Union, or the United Nations are seen as major players whose roles were foretold in scripture. Within dispensational premillennialist writing, there is the belief that Christians will be summoned to Heaven by Christ at the Rapture, occurring before a "Great Tribulation" prophesied in Matthew 24–25; Mark 13 and Luke 21. The Tribulation is described in the book of Revelation.

"End times" may also refer to the passing of an age or long period in the relationship between man and God.[21] Adherents to this view cite the Second Epistle to Timothy and draw analogies to the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries.

Post-Exilic Hebrew books of prophecy such as Daniel and Ezekiel are given new interpretations in this tradition, while in apocalyptic forecasts appear in the Judeo-Christian Sibylline Oracles which include the Book of Revelation ascribed to John, the apocryphal Apocalypse of Peter, and the Second Book Of Esdras.

Most fundamentalist Christians anticipate biblical prophecy to be literally fulfilled. They see current wars, natural disaster and famine as the birth pangs which Jesus described in Matthew 24:7–8 and Mark 13:8. They believe that mankind began in the garden of Eden, and point to the Valley of Megiddo as the place where the current world system will terminate, after which the Messiah will rule for 1,000 years.

Contemporary use of the term End Times has evolved from literal belief in Christian millennialism. In this tradition, Biblical apocalypse is believed to be imminent, with various current events as omens of impending Armageddon. These beliefs have been put forward by the Adventist movement (Millerites), Jehovah's Witnesses, and dispensational premillennialists. In 1918 a group of eight well known preachers produced the London Manifesto, warning of an imminent second coming of Christ shortly after the 1917 liberation of Jerusalem by the British.

Icon of the Second Coming. Greek, ca. 1700 A.D.

Religious movements which expect that the second coming of Christ as a cataclysmic event are generally called adventism. These have arisen throughout the Christian era, but were particularly common after the Protestant Reformation. Emanuel Swedenborg considered the second coming to be symbolic, and to have occurred in 1757. Along with others, he developed a religious system around the second coming of Christ, disclosed by new prophecy or special revelation not described in the Bible. The Millerites are diverse religious groups which similarly rely upon a special gift of interpretation for predicting the second coming.

The difference between the 19th century Millerite and Adventist movements and contemporary prophecy is that William Miller and his followers, based on Biblical interpretation, predicted the time of the Second Coming to have occurred in 1844. Contemporary writing of end time has suggested that the timetable will be triggered by future wars and moral catastrophe, and that this time of tribulation is close at hand.

Seventh-day Adventists believe Biblical prophecy to foretell an end time scenario in which the United States works in conjunction with the Catholic Church to mandate worship on a day other than the true Sabbath, Saturday, as prescribed in the Ten Commandments (Exodus 20:8–11). This will bring about a situation where one must choose for or against the Bible as the will of God.[22]

Preterism[edit]

Another view of the end times is preterism. It distinguishes the time of the end from the end of time. Preterists believe the term Last Days (or Time of the End) refers to, neither the last days of the Earth, nor the last days of humankind, but the end of the Old Covenant between God and Israel; which, according to preterism, took place when the Temple in Jerusalem which was destroyed in 70 CE.

Preterists believe that prophecies — such as the Second Coming, the desecration of the Jewish Temple, the destruction of Jerusalem, the rise of the Antichrist, the Great Tribulation, the advent of The Day of the Lord, and a Final Judgment — had been fulfilled when the Romans sacked Jerusalem and completely destroyed its Temple.

Proponents of full preterism do not believe in a coming resurrection of the dead. They place this event (as well as the Second Coming) in the year 70. Advocates of partial preterism do believe in a coming resurrection. Full preterists contend that partial preterists are merely futurists, since they believe the Second Coming, the Resurrection, the Rapture, and the Judgment are yet to come.

Many preterists believe that first-century Christians experienced the Rapture to rejoin the Christ.

According with Preterism's interpretation of end times, many "time passages" in the New Testament foretell a Second Coming of Christ, with Last Days to take place within the lifetimes of his disciples: Matt. 10:23, Matt. 16:28, Matt. 24:34, Matt. 26:64, Rom. 13:11–12, 1 Cor. 7:29–31, 1 Cor. 10:11, Phil. 4:5, James 5:8–9, 1 Pet. 4:7, 1 Jn. 2:18.

Dispensationalist prophecies[edit]
A celebratory crowd gathered in Tel Aviv to hear the Declaration of Independence. The reestablishment of Israel provided impetus to dispensationalism.

Dispensationalism is an evangelica futurist Bibilical interpretation that foresees a series of dispensations, or periods, in which God relates to human beings under different Biblical covenants. The belief system is primarily rooted in the writings of John Nelson Darby and is premillennial in content. The reestablishment of Israel in 1948 provided a major impetus to the dispensationalist belief system. The wars of Israel after 1948 with its Arab neighbors provided further support, according to John F. Walvoord.[23] After the Six Day War in 1967, and the Yom Kippur War in 1973, it seemed plausible to many Fundamentalist Christians in the 1970s that Middle East turmoil may well be leading up to the fulfillment of various Bible prophecies and to the Battle of Armageddon.

Members of the dispensationalist movement such as Hal Lindsey, J. Dwight Pentecost, John Walvoord, all of whom have Dallas Theological Seminary backgrounds, and some other writers, claimed further that the European Economic Community, which preceded the European Union, would become a United States of Europe, which would in turn become a Revived Roman Empire ruled by the Antichrist. The Revived Roman Empire also figured into the New Testament writers' vision of the future. The fact that in the early 1970s, there were (erroneously thought to be) seven nations in the European Economic Community was held to be significant; this aligned the Community with a seven-headed beast mentioned in Revelation. This specific prophecy has required revision, but the idea of a Revived Roman Empire remains.

The separate destinies of the Church and Israel, a belief which is inherent in dispensationalism, is a particular concern to some Jews and evangelical Christians. Evangelicals who reject dispensationalism, such as those who hold to a Post Tribulation Rapture, (or more accurately a Post Tribulation Resurrection-Rapture), see both the Church and Israel entering the crucible of the End Time together. "The Jerusalem Declaration on Christian Zionism". Riah Abu El-Assal, Swerios Malki Mourad, His Beatitude Michel Sabbah, Bishop Dr. Munib Younan. 

Dispensationalism, in contrast to the Millerite Adventist movement, had its beginning in the 19th century, when John Nelson Darby, founder of the Plymouth Brethren religious denomination, incorporated into his system of Biblical interpretation a system of organizing Biblical time into a number of discrete dispensations, each of which marks a separate covenant with God. Darby's beliefs were widely publicized in Cyrus I. Scofield's Scofield Reference Bible, an annotated Bible that became popular in the United States of America.

Since the majority of the Biblical prophets were writing at a time when the Temple in Jerusalem was still functioning, they wrote as if it would still be standing during the prophesied events. According to preterism, this was a fulfillment of the prophecies. However, according to Futurists, their destruction in AD 70 put the prophetic timetable on hold. Many such believers therefore anticipated the return of Jews to Israel and the reconstruction of the Temple before the Second Coming could occur. [24][25]

Post-tribulation pre-millennialists[edit]

A view of the Second Coming of Christ as held by post-tribulational pre-millennialists holds that the Church of Christ will have to undergo great persecution by being present during the great tribulation.

Specific prophetic movements[edit]

In 1843, William Miller made the first of several predictions that the world would end in only a few months. As his predictions did not come true (referred to as the Great Disappointment), followers of Miller went on to found separate groups, the most successful of which is the Seventh-day Adventist Church.

Members of the Bahá'í Faith believe that Miller's interpretation of signs and dates of the coming of Jesus were, for the most part, correct.[26] They believe that the fulfillment of biblical prophecies of the coming of Christ came through a forerunner of their own religion, the Báb. According to the Báb's words, 4 April 1844 was "the first day that the Spirit descended" into his heart.[27] His subsequent declaration to Mullá Husayn-i Bushru'i that he was the "Promised One"—an event now commemorated by Bahá'ís as a major holy day—took place on 23 May 1844. It was in October of that year that the Báb embarked on a pilgrimage to Mecca, where he openly declared his claims to the Sharif of Mecca.[28][29] The first news coverage of these events in the West was in 1845 by The Times,[30] followed by others in 1850 in the United States.[31] The first Bahá'í to come to America was in 1892.[28] Several Bahá'í books and pamphlets make mention of the Millerites, the prophecies used by Miller and the Great Disappointment, most notably William Sears's Thief in the Night.[32][33][34]

Restorationism (Christian primitivism)[edit]

End times theology is also significant to restorationist Christian religions, which consider themselves distinct from both Catholicism and Protestantism.

Jehovah's Witnesses[edit]
Current Watch Tower headquarters in Brooklyn. The society made a number of emphatic claims of impending last days and ensuing chaos between 1879–1924.

The eschatology of Jehovah's Witnesses is central to their religious beliefs. They believe that Jesus Christ has been ruling in heaven as king since 1914 (a date they believe was prophesied in Scripture), and that after that time a period of cleansing occurred, resulting in God's selection of the Bible Students associated with Charles Taze Russell to be his people in 1919. They also believe the destruction of those who reject their message[35] and thus willfully refuse to obey God[36][37] will shortly take place at Armageddon, ensuring that the beginning of the new earthly society will be composed of willing subjects of that kingdom.

The religion's doctrines surrounding 1914 are the legacy of a series of emphatic claims regarding the years 1799,[38] 1874,[38] 1878,[39] 1914,[40] 1918[41] and 1925[42] made in the Watch Tower Society's publications between 1879 and 1924. Claims about the significance of those years, including the presence of Jesus Christ, the beginning of the "last days", the destruction of worldly governments and the earthly resurrection of Jewish patriarchs, were successively abandoned.[43] In 1922 the society's principal journal, The Watchtower, described its chronology as "no stronger than its weakest link", but also claimed the chronological relationships to be "of divine origin and divinely corroborated...in a class by itself, absolutely and unqualifiedly correct"[44] and "indisputable facts",[38] while repudiation of Russell's teachings was described as "equivalent to a repudiation of the Lord".[45]

The Watch Tower Society has admitted its early leaders promoted "incomplete, even inaccurate concepts".[46] The Governing Body of Jehovah's Witnesses says that, unlike Old Testament prophets, its interpretations of the Bible are not inspired or infallible.[47][48][49]Witness publications say that Bible prophecies can be fully understood only after their fulfillment, citing examples of biblical figures who did not understand the meaning of prophecies they received. Watch Tower publications often cite Proverbs 4:18, "The path of the righteous ones is like the bright light that is getting lighter and lighter until the day is firmly established" (NWT) to support their view that there would be an increase in knowledge during "the time of the end", as mentioned in Daniel 12:4. Jehovah's Witnesses state that this increase in knowledge needs adjustments. Watch Tower publications also say that unfulfilled expectations are partly due to eagerness for God's Kingdom and that they do not call their core beliefs into question.[50][51][52]

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints[edit]

Members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints believe that there will be a Second Coming of Jesus to the earth sometime in the future. The LDS Church and its leaders do not make any predictions of the actual date of the Second Coming.

According to church doctrine, the true gospel will be taught in all parts of the world prior to the Second Coming.[53] They also believe that there will be increasing war, earthquakes, hurricanes, and man-made disasters prior to the Second Coming.[54] Disasters of all kind will happen before Christ comes.[55] Upon the return of Jesus Christ, all people will be resurrected in order of righteousness. Christ shall reign for a period of 1000 years, after which Satan and his followers will be destroyed and the Final Judgement will occur.

Islam[edit]

Muslims believe that there are three periods before the Day of Judgment, also known as ashratu's-sa'ah or alamatu qiyami's-sa'ah, with some debate as to whether the periods could overlap.[56][57][58]

According to Harun Yahya, the first period is said to have begun with the death of Muhammad. The second began with the passing of all his Companions, and ended a thousand years later. Another event of the second period was the Tartar invasion, occurring 650 years after Muhammad. The Mongols, led by Hulagu Khan, grandson of Genghis Khan, attacked Baghdad in 1258 AD and brought the Abbasid caliphate to an end. They massacred millions of Muslims, and the water of the river Tigris turned red with blood. A Hadeeth also predicted a fire at Madinah in the Hijaz near Busra in Syria, which Islamic scholars believe occurred in 654 AH. Following the second, the third and final period will be heralded by the appearance of the Mahdi.[56]

Sunni[edit]

Sunnis believe that the dead will then stand in a grand assembly, awaiting a scroll detailing their righteous deeds, sinful acts and ultimate judgment.[59][60]Muhammad will be the first to be resurrected.[61] Punishments will include adhab, or severe pain and embarrassment, and khizy or shame.[62] There will also be a punishment of the grave between death and the resurrection.[63]

The signs of the coming end time are divided into major and minor signs:

Major signs[edit]

Following the second period, the third is said to be marked by the ten major signs known as alamatu's-sa'ah al- kubra (The major signs of the end).[note 1] They are as follows:

  1. The false messiah (anti-Christ), Masih ad-Dajjal, shall appear with huge powers as a one eyed man with the right eye blind and deformed like a grape. He will claim to be God and to hold keys to heaven and hell and lead many astray, although believers will not be deceived.[64] In reality, his heaven is the hell, and his hell is the heaven. The Dajjal would be followed by seventy thousand Jews of Isfahan wearing Persian shawls.[note 2]
  2. The return of Isa (Jesus), from the fourth sky to kill Dajjal.[65]
  3. Ya'jooj and Ma'jooj (Gog and Magog), Japhetic tribe of vicious beings which had been imprisoned by Dhul-Qarnayn will break out. They will ravage the earth, drink all the water of Lake Tiberias, and kill all believers in their way (or see). Isa, Imam Al-Mahdi, and the believers with them will go to the top of a mountain and pray for the destruction of Gog and Magog. God will eventually send disease and worms to wipe them out.[note 3][66]
  4. A huge black smoke cloud will cover the earth.[67]
  5. Dabbat al-ard, or the Beast that will come out of the ground to talk to people.[note 4]
  6. The sun will rise from the west.[68][69]
  7. Three sinking of the earth, one in the east,[67]
  8. One in the west,[67]
  9. And one in Arabia.[67]
  10. The second trumpet blow will be sounded, the dead will return to life and a fire will start come out of Yemen that shall gather all to Mahshar Al Qiy'amah (The Gathering for Judgment).[56]
Shia[edit]

Concepts and terminology in Shia eschatology includes Mi'ad, The Occultation and Al-Yamani, Sufyani In Twelver Shia hadiths about the last days, the literature largely revolves around Muhammad al-Mahdi, a messianic figure considered to be the twelfth appointed successor to Muhammad. Mahdi will help mankind against the deception by a man called Dajjal who will try to get people in to a new world religion which is called "the great deception".[70]

Ahmadiyya[edit]

Ahmadiyya is considered distinct from mainstream Islam. In its writing, the present age has been witness to the evil of man and wrath of God, with war and natural disaster.[71]Ghulam Ahmad is seen as the promised Messiah and the Mahdi, fulfilling Islamic and Biblical prophecies, as well as scriptures of other religions such as Hinduism. His teaching will establish spiritual reform and establish an age of peace. This will continue for a thousand years, and will unify mankind under one faith.[72]

Ahmadis believe that despite harsh and strong opposition and discrimination they will eventually be triumphant and their message vindicated both by Muslims and non-Muslims alike. Ahmadis also incorporate the eschatological views from other religions into their doctrine and believe that Mirza Ghulam Ahmed falls into this sequence.[73]

Bahá'í Faith[edit]

The founder of the Bahá'í Faith, Bahá'u'lláh claimed that he was the return of Christ as well as prophetic expectations of other religions.[74] The inception of the Bahá'í Faith coincides with Millerite prophesy, pointing to the year 1844. They also believe the Battle of Armageddon has passed and that the mass martyrdom anticipated during the End Times had already passed within the historical context of the Bahá'í Faith.[75][76] Bahá'ís expect their faith to be eventually embraced by the masses of the world, ushering in a golden age.

Rastafari movement[edit]

Rastafarians have a unique interpretation of end times, based on the Old Testament and the Book of Revelation. They believe Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie I to be God incarnate, the King of kings and Lord of lords mentioned in Revelation 5:5. They saw the crowning of Selassie as the second coming, and the Second Italo-Ethiopian War as fulfillment of Revelation. There is also the expectation that Selassie will return for a day of judgment and bring home the lost children of Israel, which in Rastafarianism refer to those taken from Africa through the slave trade. There will then be an era of peace and harmony at Mount Zion in Africa.[77]

Cyclic cosmology[edit]

Norse religion[edit]

Odin fighting his old nemesis Fenrir

Norse mythology depicts the end of days as Ragnarök, an Old Norse term translatable as "twilight of the gods". It will be heralded by a devastation known as Fimbulvetr which will seize Midgard in cold and darkness. The sun and moon will disappear from the sky, and poison will fill the air. Dead will rise from the ground and there will be widespread despair.

There follows a battle between - on the one hand - the Gods with the Æsir, Vanir[citation needed] and Einherjar, led by Odin, and - on the other hand - forces of Chaos, including the fire giants and jötunn, led by Loki. In the fighting Odin will be swallowed whole by his old nemesis Fenrir.[78] The god Freyr fights Surtr but loses. Víðarr, son of Odin, will then avenge his father by ripping Fenrir's jaws apart and stabbing the wolf in the heart with his spear. The serpent Jörmungandr will open its gaping maw and be met in combat by Thor. Thor, also a son of Odin, will defeat the serpent, only to take nine steps afterwards before collapsing to his own death.[79]

After this people will flee their homes as the sun blackens and the earth sinks into the sea. The stars will vanish, steam will rise, and flames will touch the heavens. This conflict will result in the deaths of most of the major Gods and forces of Chaos. Finally, Surtr will fling fire across the nine worlds. The ocean will then completely submerge Midgard.[80]

After the cataclysm the world will resurface new and fertile, and the surviving Gods will meet. The two human survivors, Líf and Lífþrasir, will then repopulate this new earth.[81]

Ragnarök after Surtr has engulfed the world with fire

Hinduism[edit]

In Hindu eschatology, time is cyclic and consists of kalpas. Each lasts 4.1 – 8.2 billion years, which is a period of one full day and night for Brahma, who will be alive for 311 trillion, 40 billion years. Within a kalpa there are periods of creation, preservation and decline. After this larger cycle, all of creation will contract to a singularity and then again will expand from that single point, as the ages continue in a religious fractal pattern.[58]

Within the current kalpa, there are four epochs that encompass the cycle. They progress from a beginning of complete purity to a descent into total corruption. The last of the four ages is Kali Yuga, our current time, during which will be characterized by impiety, violence and decay. The four pillars of dharma will be reduced to one, with truth being all that remains.[82] As written in the Gita:

Yadā yadā hi dharmasya glānirbhavati BhārataAbhyutthānam adharmasya tadātmānam sṛjāmyaham

Whenever there is decay of righteousness O! BharataAnd a rise of unrighteousness then I manifest Myself![83]

At this time of chaos, the final avatar, Kalki, endowed with eight superhuman faculties will appear on a white horse. Kalki will amass an army to "establish righteousness upon the earth" and leave "the minds of the people as pure as crystal."

At the completion of Kali Yuga, the next cycle will begin with a new Satya Yuga, in which all will once again be righteous with the reestablishment of dharma. This, in turn, will be followed by epochs of Treta Yuga, Dwapara Yuga and again another Kali Yuga. This cycle will then repeat till the larger cycle of existence under Brahma returns to the singularity, and a new universe is born.[77]

Buddhism[edit]

There are two major points of Buddhist eschatology, the appearance of Maitreya, followed by the Sermon of the Seven Suns.

Maitreya[edit]

Buddha described his teachings disappearing five thousand years from when he preached them, corresponding approximately to the year 2300. At this time, knowledge of dharma will be lost as well. The last of his relics will be gathered in Bodh Gaya and cremated.[citation needed] There will be a new era in which the next Buddha Maitreya will appear, but it will be preceded by the degeneration of human society. This will be a period of greed, lust, poverty, ill will, violence, murder, impiety, physical weakness, sexual depravity and societal collapse, and even the Buddha himself will be forgotten.[58]

This will be followed by the coming of Maitreya when the teachings of dharma are forgotten. Maitreya was the first Bodhisattva around whom a cult developed, in approximately the 3rd century CE.[84]

The earliest mention of Maitreya is in the Cakavatti, or Sihanada Sutta in Digha Nikaya 26 of the Pali Canon. In it, Gautama Buddha predicted that his teachings of dharma would be forgotten after 5,000 years.

“At that period, brethren, there will arise in the world an Exalted One named Maitreya, Fully Awakened, abounding in wisdom and goodness, happy, with knowledge of the worlds, unsurpassed as a guide to mortals willing to be led, a teacher for gods and men, an Exalted One, a Buddha, even as I am now. He, by himself, will thoroughly know and see, as it were face to face, this universe, with Its worlds of the spirits, Its Brahmas and Its Maras, and Its world of recluses and Brahmins, of princes and peoples, even as I now, by myself, thoroughly know and see them”

— Digha Nikaya, 26

Maitreya Buddha is then foretold to be born in the city of Ketumatī in present-day Benares, whose king will be the Cakkavattī Sankha. Sankha will live in the former palace of King Mahāpanadā, and will become a renunciate who follows Maitreya.[85][86]

In Mahayana Buddhism, Maitreya will attain bodhi in seven days, the minimum period, by virtue of his many lifetimes of preparation. Once Buddha, he will rule over the Ketumati Pure Land, an earthly paradise sometimes associated with the Indian city of Varanasi or Benares in Uttar Pradesh. In Mahayana Buddhism, the Buddha presides over a land of purity. For example, Amitabha presides over Sukhavati, more popularly known as the 'Western Paradise'.[87]

Bodhisattva Maitreya from the 2nd Century Gandharan Art Period

A notable teaching he will rediscover is that of the ten non-virtuous deeds—killing, stealing, sexual misconduct, lying, divisive speech, abusive speech, idle speech, covetousness, harmful intent and wrong views. These will be replaced by the ten virtuous deeds, which are the abandonment of each of these practices. He is described by Conze in his Buddhist Scriptures:

The Lord replied, 'Maitreya, the best of men, will then leave the Tuṣita heavens, and go for his last rebirth. As soon as he is born he will walk seven steps forward, and where he puts down his feet a jewel or a lotus will spring up. He will raise his eyes to the ten directions, and will speak these words: "This is my last birth. There will be no rebirth after this one. Never will I come back here, but, all pure, I shall win Nirvana."

— Buddhist Scriptures [88]

He currently resides in Tushita, but will come to Jambudvipa when needed most as successor to the historic Śākyamuni Buddha. Maitreya will achieve complete enlightenment during his lifetime, and following this reawakening, he will bring back the timeless teaching of dharma to this plane and rediscover enlightenment.[89] The Arya Maitreya Mandala, founded by Lama Anagarika Govinda is based on the idea of Maitreya.

Maitreya eschatology forms the central canon of the White Lotus Society, a revolutionary movement during British colonial rule. It later branched into the Chinese underground criminal organization known as the Triad, which exists today as an international underground criminal network.

It is of note that description of Maitreya occurs in no other sutta in the canon, casting doubt as to authenticity of the scripture. In addition, sermons of the Buddha normally are in response to a question, or in a specific context, but this sutta has a beginning and an ending, and its content is quite different from the others. This has led some to conclude that the whole sutta is apocryphal, or tampered with.[89]

Sermon of the Seven Suns[edit]

In his "Sermon of the Seven Suns" in the Pali Canon, the Buddha describes the ultimate fate of the world in an apocalypse that will be characterized by the consequent appearance of seven suns in the sky, each causing progressive ruin till the Earth is destroyed:

All things are impermanent, all aspects of existence are unstable and non-eternal. Beings will become so weary and disgusted with the constituent things that they will seek emancipation from them more quickly. There will come a season, O monks when, after hundreds of thousands of years, rains will cease. All seedlings, all vegetation, all plants, grasses and trees will dry up and cease to be...There comes another season after a great lapse of time when a second sun will appear. Now all brooks and ponds will dry up, vanish, cease to be.

— Aňguttara-Nikăya, VII, 6.2 Pali Canon[58]

The canon goes on to describe the progressive destruction of each sun. A third sun will dry the mighty Ganges and other great rivers. A fourth will cause the great lakes to evaporate, and a fifth will dry the oceans. Finally:

Again after a vast period of time a sixth sun will appear, and it will bake the Earth even as a pot is baked by a potter. All the mountains will reek and send up clouds of smoke. After another great interval a seventh sun will appear and the Earth will blaze with fire until it becomes one mass of flame. The mountains will be consumed, a spark will be carried on the wind and go to the worlds of God....Thus, monks, all things will burn, perish and exist no more except those who have seen the path.

— Aňguttara-Nikăya, VII, 6.2 Pali Canon[58]

The sermon completes with the planet engulfed by a vast inferno. The Pali Canon does not indicate when this will happen relative to Maitreya.[58]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ West 2013, pp. 89–109
  3. ^ Taylor, Richard P. (2000), Death and Afterlife: A Cultural Encyclopedia, ABC-CLIO, p. 312 .
  4. ^ Boyce, Mary (1979), Zoroastrians: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, pp. 27–29, ISBN 978-0-415-23902-8 .
  5. ^ a b c d "Jewish Eschatology". Jewish Encyclopedia. Retrieved 1 May 2012. 
  6. ^ Babylonian Talmud Rosh Hashana 31a and Sanhedrin 97a
  7. ^ a b Pirke De Rabbi Eliezer, Gerald Friedlander, Sepher-Hermon Press, New York, 1981, p. 141.
  8. ^ Zohar (1:117a) and Zohar Vayera 119a
  9. ^ Zohar, Vayera 119a
  10. ^ Ramban on Genesis (2:3)
  11. ^ Abarbanel on Genesis 2
  12. ^ Ramban quoting Ibn Ezra at Leviticus (25:2)
  13. ^ Bachya on Genesis 2:3
  14. ^ Safra D'Tzniusa, Ch. 5
  15. ^ Sefer HaSichos 5750:254
  16. ^ Derech Hashem 4:7:2
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  18. ^ Fleisher, Malkah (2008-10-27). "'It's Erev Shabbos of the World' – Jewish World – News". Israel National News. Retrieved 2011-11-21. 
  19. ^ See 2 Thessalonians chapter 2 and Son of perdition.
  20. ^ An explanation of these beliefs appears on the Holy See's website
  21. ^ Chang Soppe, Seok Lyun (2014). God's Mystery That Is Christ. WestBow Press. ISBN 1490815945. 
  22. ^ "How Seventh-day Adventists View Roman Catholicism".  – Main Statements of Belief from the official Adventist Church website.
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  27. ^ Momen, Moojan (2007). "Messianic Concealment and Theophanic Disclosure" (PDF). Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies. 1: 71–88. ISSN 1177-8547. Retrieved 2012-04-14. 
  28. ^ a b Cameron, G.; Momen, W. (1996). A Basic Bahá'í Chronology. Oxford, UK: George Ronald. pp. 15–20, 125. ISBN 0-85398-404-2. 
  29. ^ Shoghi Effendi Rabbani. God Passes By. p. 9. 
  30. ^ Momen, Moojan (1999). "Early Western Accounts of the Babi and Baha'i Faiths". Encyclopedia articles. Bahá'í Library Online. Retrieved 2012-02-02. 
  31. ^ "Early mention of Bábís in western newspapers, summer 1850". Historical documents and Newspaper articles. Bahá'í Library Online. September 17, 2010. Retrieved 2012-04-14. 
  32. ^ Sears, William (1961). Thief in the Night. London: George Ronald. ISBN 0-85398-008-X. 
  33. ^ Bowers, Kenneth E. (2004). God Speaks Again: An Introduction to the Bahá'í Faith. Baha'i Publishing Trust. p. 12. ISBN 1-931847-12-6. 
  34. ^ Motlagh, Hushidar Hugh (1992). I Shall Come Again (The Great Disappointment ed.). Mt. Pleasant, MI: Global Perspective. pp. 205–213. ISBN 0-937661-01-5. 
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  36. ^ You Can Live Forever in Paradise on Earth, Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, 1989, p. 155.
  37. ^ Revelation—Its Grand Climax at Hand!, Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, 1988, p. 6.
  38. ^ a b c The Watchtower, 1 March 1922, page 73, "The indisputable facts, therefore, show that the 'time of the end' began in 1799; that the Lord's second presence began in 1874."
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  40. ^ The Watchtower, July 15, 1894, p. 1677: "We see no reason for changing the figures—nor could we change them if we would. They are, we believe, God's dates, not ours. But bear in mind that the end of 1914 is not the date for the beginning, but for the end of the time of trouble."
  41. ^ 1 September 1916 The Watchtower, pages 264–265
  42. ^ Millions Now Living Will Never Die, 1920, page 97, "Based upon the argument heretofore set forth, then, that the old order of things, the old world, is ending and is therefore passing away, and that the new order is coming in, and that 1925 shall mark the resurrection of the faithful worthies of old and the beginning of reconstruction, it is reasonable to conclude that millions of people now on the earth will be still on the earth in 1925. Then, based upon the promises set forth in the divine Word, we must reach the positive and indisputable conclusion that millions now living will never die."
  43. ^ Holden, Andrew (2002). Jehovah's Witnesses: Portrait of a Contemporary Religious Movement. Routledge. p. 1. ISBN 0-415-26609-2. 
  44. ^ "The Strong Cable of Chronology", Watch Tower, 15 July 1922, page 217, "The chronology of present truth is, to begin with, a string of dates... Thus far it is a chain, and no stronger than its weakest link. There exist, however, well established relationships among the dates of present-truth chronology. These internal connections of the dates impart a much greater strength than can be found in other [secular, archeological] chronologies. Some of them are of so remarkable a character as clearly to indicate that this chronology is not of man, but of God. Being of divine origin and divinely corroborated, present-truth chronology stands in a class by itself, absolutely and unqualifiedly correct."
  45. ^ The Watchtower, 1 May 1922, page 132, "To abandon or repudiate the Lord's chosen instrument means to abandon or repudiate the Lord himself, upon the principle that he who rejects the servant sent by the Master thereby rejects the Master. ... Brother Russell was the Lord's servant. Then to repudiate him and his work is equivalent to a repudiation of the Lord, upon the principle heretofore announced."
  46. ^ Jehovah's Witnesses—Proclaimers of God's Kingdom (Watch Tower Society, 1993), chapter 10.
  47. ^ Revelation – Its Grand Climax, Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, 1988, page 9.
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  49. ^ "To Whom Shall We Go but Jesus Christ?". Watchtower. 1 March 1979. p. 23. the “faithful and discreet slave” has alerted all of God’s people to the sign of the times indicating the nearness of God’s Kingdom rule. In this regard, however, it must be observed that this “faithful and discreet slave” was never inspired, never perfect. Those writings by certain members of the “slave” class that came to form the Christian part of God’s Word were inspired and infallible [the bible], but that is not true of other writings since. 
  50. ^ Why have there been changes over the years in the teachings of Jehovah’s Witnesses?,"Jehovah's Witnesses", Reasoning From the Scriptures, 1989, Watchtower Bible and Tract Society, page 205
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  52. ^ "Keep in Step With Jehovah’s Organization", Watchtower, 15 January 2001, page 18.
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  54. ^ Doctrine and Covenants 45:26
  55. ^ doctrine and covenants 45:26
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External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to End Times.

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Signs of the End Times

WE NEVER SET DATES. We merely proclaim the Bible truth concerning end time signs. It is Satan who keeps setting these dates to turn people away from truth.

When Noah and Lot warned their respective people of God's coming judgment and destruction, the people would not listen. Instead they treated Noah and Lot as "extremists". Then the destruction that DID come found the people unprepared. Thus it will be when Jesus Christ returns. As in the days of Noah and Lot, the soon return of our Lord Jesus will be a snare unto the people who do not heed the warning and surrender their lives to Him who knows all. (Luke 17:26-30)

This world is hearing and seeing the last warning message from God. Multitudes, multitudes in the valley of decision; for the day of the Lord is near in the valley of decision! (Joel 3:14)

→→ FINAL WARNING AND CALL OF MERCY ←← →→ WHAT MUST I DO TO BE SAVED? ←←

What you are about to discover in this site is amazing evidence that we in 2017, are living right in the end of times for this world as we know it. The prophecy of Daniel 2 alone shows we are in the 'time of the end', and all the other evidence proves we are in the very end times. The Biblical signs are clear for all to see, and after reading through this site with open eyes, even the scoffers will struggle to argue against it. Sure, many people throughout history have been proclaiming that they were living in the last days and the end of the world was nigh, and some of the Bible signs have always existed from the early days. But never has there been a time before when ALL these events were evident in so many diverse places and with such frequency and intensity. Our Generation is the FIRST generation to fulfill ALL the biblical signs. So we will show you from the many following signs on this and other pages, that without doubt we are living in the final years that the Bible prophesied were to come.

Please note: We are NOT here to set dates or times. We are here only to warn the world that the second coming of Jesus Christ is NEAR, even "at the door" ... Matthew 24:33 ...'So likewise ye, when ye shall see all these things, know that it is near, even at the doors.'

If you take into consideration all the signs, there is no mistaking that our generation is living in the last days, nearing the second coming of Jesus. Problem is, Satan can see how close we are to the end of the world, which is why he brings certain 'end times groups' into the spotlight, proclaiming false dates for the second coming, which when those dates come and go, causes many people to turn away completely from the truth. The truth being that WE ARE living in the end times. The Bible is very clear on that. We just can't set specific dates for Jesus' return. But we CAN know when the end is near ... And we are certainly now seeing "ALL these things".

Before you read on, please note this important point. In Matthew 24, Jesus speaks of wars, earthquakes and such things, but says these are just the "beginning of sorrows" and "the end is not yet". Now that word "sorrows" in the original language meant "birth pangs", the pain in childbirth. Now birth pangs speak of frequency and intensity. And as a woman gets nearer the birth, the "pangs" become more frequent and intense. This is true also for the signs of the end times. These signs began not long after Jesus' day, and as Jesus quoted, the end would not yet be, because this was just the beginning of sorrows. But throughout history we have seen the "pangs" (signs) become more frequent and intense, culminating in the day we live in now where the pangs are so frequent and intense that we must be right at the time of "delivery", when Jesus is to return. So don't let anyone fool you into believing that the signs today are just the beginning of sorrows and the end is not yet.

Hebrews 1:1-2 ...'God, who at sundry times and in divers manners spake in time past unto the fathers by the prophets, hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son, whom he hath appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the worlds.'

"The beginning of sorrows" started nearly 2000 years ago with the persecution of the early church and the destruction of Jerusalem. We are living right at the end of time.

Historical Evidence - Daniel 2

Daniel 2:31-45 ..'Thou, O king, sawest, and behold a great image .. This image's head was of fine gold, his breast and his arms of silver, his belly and his thighs of brass, His legs of iron, his feet part of iron and part of clay. Thou sawest till that a stone was cut out without hands, which smote the image upon his feet ... Thou art this head of gold ... And after thee shall arise another kingdom inferior to thee, and another third kingdom of brass, which shall bear rule over all the earth. And the fourth kingdom shall be strong as iron ... And whereas thou sawest the feet and toes, part of potters' clay, and part of iron, the kingdom shall be divided ... Forasmuch as thou sawest that the stone was cut out of the mountain without hands, and that it brake in pieces the iron, the brass, the clay, the silver, and the gold; the great God hath made known to the king what shall come to pass hereafter.'

More than being a "sign" of the times, this is an historical FACT of where we stand in earth's history. The vision that God gave King Nebuchadnezzar as shown in the Bible verses above, and subsequently the interpretation to the prophet Daniel, consisted of an image of a man which depicted all the "ages" and ruling kingdoms from the time of Babylon until the second coming of Christ Jesus (the destroying Rock, which is the eternal kingdom of God).

By the way, if you are not convinced that the Bible is any sort of authority, then study the prophecy of Daniel 2. It perfectly foretold the future kingdoms of this world up until the end of time. And history confirms it as ACCURATE.

As you can see from the picture, the different parts of the man represented the different "ages" and ruling kingdoms of this world. And what is the last "age"? It's the feet of the image. And when did the last age start? It started in the year 476 AD. when Rome fell and split into the ten kingdoms of Europe. Which means this world has been in the "last age" for over 1500 YEARS! So add that to the amazing signs of the last days that you will see throughout this site, and you are left with no doubt that we are living right at the end of the toes on the image and right at the end of time, soon to see the second coming of Christ Jesus.

End Time Sign - INCREASE OF KNOWLEDGE

Daniel 12:4 ...'even to the time of the end: many shall run to and fro, and knowledge shall be increased.'

I Just love this sign, because it is clearly pointing to our day today, and it cannot be refuted by anyone. Throughout history we have had a slow and little increase in knowledge. But take a look at the EXPLOSION of knowledge over the past 150 years! Up until recently in history, the fastest form of transport was a horse. Now man can travel at hundreds of miles per hour, and cross the globe in a day! Technology has developed at a rapid pace, which has led to great improvements in computer power, scientific discoveries and the medical profession. Just look at how much we have learned about the human body with things like DNA and Cellular Structures etc. And how about "running to and fro"? This is pointing specifically to our day with planes, trains, automobiles and the busyness of modern day life. We are definately running to and fro and have knowledge like no time before us.

"run to and fro and knowledge increase" applies also to knowledge of Bible truths ...

This Bible sign has a dual application. "running to and fro and knowledge increase" also applies to knowledge of Biblical truths (see Amos 8:12). During the "dark ages", for over 1000 years, knowledge of Biblical truths were surpressed by the Roman Catholic Church. But since the protestant reformation and breakaway from Rome, God's people have been running to and fro in His Word FREELY and knowledge about great Bible truths have been revealed. God now has an end time remnant church with the FULL gospel truth to take to the world before the end comes, which was needed to fulfill the sign about taking the true gospel message to the whole world. Which you will read about further down the page.

End Time Sign - ABILITY TO ENFORCE THE MARK

Revelation 13:17 ...'And that no man might buy or sell, save he that had the mark, or the name of the beast, or the number of his name.'

Now this is a sign that most people miss! Have a think about it ... What needs to happen in order for the "beast system" to stop people from buying and selling if they refuse the mark? We need to have a worldwide financial system whereby everything bought and sold is through electronic means, not cash.

Has there been any time in history where this could happen? No. Are WE living in a day where this could happen? Most certainly, yes! And the powers of this world are now trying to make cash obsolete, and are actively pushing pure electronic forms of payment, like "PayPal" and "Google Wallet" for instance. Take a look at the news and you will see this being reported in different countries of the world.

Sweden close to being a Cashless Society

Cash is Dead, are Credit Cards Next?

Nigeria Deploying Biometric Technology Throughout the Banking System

Mastercard Tracking Global Economies Heading for Cashless Societies

Israel Leaders Pushing for a Cashless Society

UN World Food Program Pushing Smart Cards and Digital Payment

Cashless Society Drive Gaining Momentum in Rwanda

Above is just a few examples of the major push throughout the world for a cashless society. We have the techonology to do this now, which in times past wasn't possible. And look at the financial turmoil around the world today. This will help in bringing in a "unified" currency to help make it possible to enforce the mark of the beast. Technology isn't the mark, but technology is needed for proper enforcement of it. This is a SURE sign of the end times!

End Time Sign - MAN OF SIN REVEALED

2 Thessalonians 2:3 ...'Let no man deceive you by any means: for that day shall not come, except there come a falling away first, and that man of sin be revealed, the son of perdition.'

Paul here is saying that "THAT DAY", the second coming of Christ, will not come until the falling away happens and that man of sin is revealed. Now many professed Christians today believe that the 'falling away' is something that will happen in the last days. But this is a wrong view, because the falling away began not long after the New Testament church and was completely fulfilled when the Roman Catholic Church took control and merged Christianity with Paganism, and punished anyone who did not bow to her so called 'authority' and false teachings. And that man of sin who was "revealed" to the world during the Protestant reformation is none other than the pope(s) of the Roman Catholic Church.

See proof of who the man of sin is HERE.

So, the falling away has happened and the man of sin HAS been revealed. Therefore the second coming of Christ can happen and this shows we are living in the end times.

End Time Sign - VIOLENCE AND SEXUAL IMMORALITY

Matthew 24:37 ...'But as the days of Noah were, so shall also the coming of the Son of man be.'

Luke 17:28-30 ...'Likewise also as it was in the days of Lot; they did eat, they drank, they bought, they sold, they planted, they builded; But the same day that Lot went out of Sodom it rained fire and brimstone from heaven, and destroyed them all. Even thus shall it be in the day when the Son of man is revealed.'

What was it like in Noah's day and Lot's day? We need to go to two other Bible verses to see what it was like. Genesis 6:13 tells us that in Noah's day the "earth was filled with violence." And in Jude 1:7 it says that in Lot's day, Sodom and Gomorrha had given itself over to "fornication and strange flesh". So violence prevailed in Noah's day and sexual immorality (including homosexuality) prevailed in Lot's day. And this would be a sign of the end times before Christ Jesus returns.

2017 - 1,516 MASS SHOOTINGS IN 1,735 DAYS: AMERICA'S GUN [VIOLENCE] CRISIS

2016 - MURDERS RISE IN 29 OF THE LARGEST CITIES IN AMERICA IN 2016

So our question is, does violence and sexual immorality (including homosexuality) prevail in the world today? Very much so, yes! Not only does violence and fornication rage across the whole world, homosexuality has become a "norm". Since 2001, at least 14 countries have fully legalized homosexual marriage, Argentina, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Iceland, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, South Africa, Sweden, New Zealand, Uraguay, France, with some parts of Mexico and America doing the same. And there are more countries being added to this list all the time.

US Supreme Court Declares Gay Marriage LEGAL in Historic decision

There are currently 110 MILLION Cases of sexually transmitted diseases with 20 MILLION new cases every year in America alone! (source)

Large rise in sexually transmitted diseases since 2012 in England (source)

Today, the world is FULL of violence and sexual immorality. You only need turn the tv on and you will see violence, fornication and homosexuality everywhere. The cities of the world today are especially bad and are no longer safe places to be.

What are we told in Jude 1:7? We are told that what God did to Sodom was set forth as an example to us today. And what did God do to the people of Sodom? He DESTROYED them with fire because of their wickedness, which included homosexuality!

End Time Sign - RISE IN SPIRITUALISM

1 Timothy 4:1 ...'Now the Spirit speaketh expressly, that in the latter times some shall depart from the faith, giving heed to seducing spirits, and doctrines of devils.'

How about a rise in spiritualism and the occult in the world? Have we seen this? Well, just look at the television and movies today. "Twilight", "Harry Potter", "Lord of the Rings", and a whole host of other television series and movies containing the occult and spiritualism. It has invaded our lives like no other time before us. And what is the cause of this? It is the false teaching of the immortality of the 'soul'.

Spiritualism is also the cause of these 'near death experiences' which Satan is deceiving more and more people with.

Many people don't realize that spiritualism has also invaded the majority of churches around the world, due to this false teaching of the immortality of the soul. Yet the Bible clearly teaches that "the dead know NOTHING" (Ecclesiastes 9:5), and that when we die we return to the dust of the ground from where we came (Genesis 3:19). But the churches have embraced this false teaching of the immortal soul, which is another sign of the times we live in.

"A belief in spiritual manifestations opens the door to seducing spirits and doctrines of devils, and thus the influence of evil angels will be felt in the churches." (E.White, The Great Controversy, p.603-604)

See the truth HERE about what happens when we die.

End Time Sign - MASS ANIMAL DEATHS

Hosea 4:3 ...'Therefore shall the land mourn, and every one that dwelleth therein shall languish, with the beasts of the field, and with the fowls of heaven; yea, the fishes of the sea also shall be taken away.'

This one has become a fairly recent phenomenon. During the last few years we have seen fish, birds and other animals die in huge numbers. Since 2010, millions of fish have been turning up dead in lakes, rivers and the sea, with this deadly red tide partly to blame. Also, Birds have been dropping out of the sky in huge numbers. And we are seeing other unusual animal deaths all around the world. Including Bees and Bats dying in their millions.

"Mass animal die-offs are on the rise, killing billions and raising Questions." (source)

The Honey Bee crisis deepens as evidence shows there has been a dramatic increase in die offs .. up to 50 percent of Bees are dying now, creating worry over food supply. (source)

The Rise of Jellyfish over the past few decades is a harbinger of the health of the world's oceans! (source)

The Oceans are on the Brink of a Catastrophe! (Source)

The book of Hosea not only applied to the nation of Israel. It also applies to our day and contains prophecies concerning the state of the world we live in today. So is this text from Hosea fulfilled in our day? Is it a sign of the end times? Yes!

End Time Sign - NATURAL DISASTERS

Luke 21:25-26 ...'and upon the earth distress of nations, with perplexity; the sea and the waves roaring; Men's hearts failing them for fear, and for looking after those things which are coming on the earth: for the powers of heaven shall be shaken.'

So what about this Biblical sign? Is this being fulfilled in our day more than any other day before us? Most definately. Just look at all the natural disasters we are getting now every year. (CLICK ON THE IMAGE FOR A CHART SHOWING A TWOFOLD INCREASE OVER THE PAST 30 YEARS) Are the "seas and waves roaring"? Yes. Tens and even hundreds of thousands of people are being wiped out from Tsunamis and floods, and men's hearts are certainly fearing what is happening to this world. In America in 2010, a record was set for the number of Federal Disaster Declarations given over a year. That number was 81. In 2011, that number was broken again, with 99 Disaster Declarations given, costing over 32 Billion Dollars. And 2012 produced another year of record breaking disasters. Dr. Robert Hartwig states ... "The number of U.S. disaster declarations has been trending sharply upward, particularly over the past 15 years." (Source) ... We are really seeing things happening in this world now with regards to the fulfillment of Bible prophecy today. Click on the following charts.

         

See these Amazing Maps of Natural Disasters.

"How Natural Disasters Changed the World in 2012" - An estimated 32.4 million people worldwide were displaced due to natural disasters. (Source)

We are seeing an increase in volcanic activity worldwide

End Time Sign - EARTHQUAKES

Matthew 24:7 ...'and earthquakes in divers places.'

The scoffers love to bash this one, but from the evidence available, it is clear that earthquakes are not only increasing in frequency, but also appearing in more and more "diverse places", which the Bible predicted.

Remember, these signs are to intensify during the last days, and that is exactly what is happening with earthquakes.

Take a look at the following information and judge for yourself.

New Zealand felt a record 32,000 earthquakes in 2016 - link

We had a 'millenium's worth' of earthquakes in just 2 years, during 2014 and 2015 (source).

Big earthquakes have doubled in 2014 compared to each year since 1979 (source).

A global SURGE in great earthquakes between 2004 - 2014. (source).

"Current graphs clearly show an alarming worldwide trend of increasing earthquake strength and frequency. These results are in agreement with the USGS statistics page, which shows an increase in the frequency of stronger earthquakes (M > 5.0)." (source)

A series of massive quakes within 2 days in 2012 prompted an earthquake expert to suggest that the earth is "cracking up" (link)

As of April 2017, there were around 3,498 earthquakes happening a month. (Link)

God is giving us plenty of warning through these events, and we will be without excuse if that day of Christ's return comes upon us like a thief in the night and catches us unaware. We need to heed the signs and get ready!

Please see these amazing videos showing a graphical look into the earthquakes around the world. Christ said that there would be earthquakes in "diverse" places, and these amazing videos certainly fulfills that prophecy.

        

End Time Sign - UNSEALED PROPHECY

Daniel 12:4 ...'But thou, O Daniel, shut up the words, and seal the book, even to the time of the end.'

This sign carries on from the "increase in knowledge" sign above. But I wanted to separate it to show you that this sign alone reveals we are living in the last days. God tells Daniel to seal the book. In other words, to seal the prophecies contained within it. And that at the "time of the end", the prophecies would be unsealed and we would know what they mean.

The prophecies of Daniel 2 and 7 have been UNSEALED ←←

Daniel's 70 week prophecy has been UNSEALED ←←

The 2300 day prophecy has been UNSEALED ←←

So this alone confirms that we are living in the end times. But taking all the other signs together will show us how close we are to the second coming of Christ Jesus, the Son of the living God, and the end of the world.

Please see our END TIME PROPHECY website for many more Bible prophecy truths.

End Time Sign - FALSE CHRISTS and PROPHETS

Matthew 24:4-5,11 ...'many shall come in My Name, saying, I am Christ ... and many false prophets shall arise and deceive many.'

We've certainly had our fair share of false Christ's appearing around the world. Also, today we have many false religions proclaiming many ways to eternal life, like Roman Catholicism, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, Folk Religions, Wicca, and many other 'new age' movements. With false prophets like the Pope, Muhammad, Krishna, Buddha, etc., leading these religions.

We also have many false prophets and leaders in "Christian" churches, like the the prosperity gospel preachers and people like Oprah Winfrey leading these new age movements. And millions of people have been sucked in and deceived by these 'false prophets'. There are also many who appear to be 'sheep leading the flock' but in fact are 'inwardly ravening wolves' leading the people to destruction. People like Rick Warren who preach just enough truth to lull the unlearned mind into following them into apostasy! Yes, this sign has certainly been fulfilled.

Please prayerfully seek the truth yourself, by studying the Word of God in the Bible.

End Time Sign - WORLD PUSHING FOR PEACE

1 Thessalonians 5:3 ...'For when they shall say, Peace and safety; then sudden destruction cometh upon them, as travail upon a woman with child; and they shall not escape.'

Is this sign being fulfilled in our day? Yes. There is an ecumenical movement today which we were told about in end times prophecy that is uniting the world in an effort to bring peace. Churches and faiths and political leaders are uniting like never before in an effort to bring peace to this world. But this ecumenical movement is not of God, because we as God's people are not to unite with the world or any false religion (Amos 3:3, 2 Corinthians 6:17, Revelation 18:4). When they do declare "peace and safety" then destruction will come upon them (1 Thessalonians 5:3).

End Time Sign - WAR

Matthew 24:6-7 ...'And ye shall hear of wars ... For nation shall rise against nation and kingdom against kingdom.'

Many people say that this isn't a sign of the end times, because there have been wars since the beginning. Yes there have been wars since the beginning, but when you look at the frequency and intensity of wars, then it's plain to see that this is a sign of the times we are living in. During the 20th century alone, more people have been killed as a result of war than all previous centuries combined. This has resulted in HUNDREDS OF MILLIONS of people being killed in wars like World War I, World War II, Russian Civil War, Congo War, Korean War, Vietnam War, Iraq, etc. Today, there are conflicts and wars raging all around the world (Source). And in 2011, armed conflicts greatly increased according to this report.

So is war a sign for today? Of course is it. But remember, we are not to take any of these signs ON THEIR OWN. Jesus said ... "when ye shall see all these things, know that it is near". (Matthew 24:33). Taking one sign like this on it's own will not prove we are living in the last days. All signs need to be fulfilled.

End Time Sign - FAMINE

Matthew 24:7 ...'and there shall be famine.'

Just look at the famine that has struck the world over the past 30 years. Thousands die everyday of starvation and according tothis news article global starvation is spreading and increasing causing 1 Billion people to go hungry around the world. Add to that the failed crops throughout the world because of extreme weather, and bees dying off in massive numbers, and we have a worldwide shortage of food on it's way.

Not only that, we have the likes of Monsanto who are poisoning the crops that are left!

2.4 BILLION people survive on less than 2 dollars per day!

The sad thing about this sign, is that the amount of food that is wasted in the developed world could feed the hungry! So think about those in need next time you are about to fill up your shopping trolley with food that will be wasted. The Bible teaches us that we need to be helping the poor and needy, by giving them of our bread and clothing. Rather than throwing away what we don't want or need.

End Time Sign - CHRISTIANS BEING KILLED

Matthew 24:9-10 ...'Then shall they deliver you up to be afflicted, and shall kill you: and ye shall be hated of all nations for my name's sake. And then shall many be offended, and shall betray one another, and shall hate one another.'

Christians were being killed for their faith in the first century, as well as during the dark ages when the Roman Catholic Church ruled the world and killed tens of millions of God's people. This is being repeated today in places like the Middle East, China, North Korea, Pakistan, India, Nigeria, Egypt, where many Christians are being killed for their faith in Christ Jesus everyday. And once the mark of the beast is enforced soon, then this persecution will spread to the Western World.

End Time Sign - INCREASE IN SIN

Matthew 24:12 ...'And because iniquity shall abound, the love of many shall wax cold.'

Idolatry, Adultery, Violence, Lust, Greed, Disrespect, Homosexuality, Theft, Lying, Aggression, Selfishness. Is this Biblical sign fulfilled in our day? Absolutely! Just go back 50 years and you would not see half the sin and wickedness that we see in people today. Look at what is portrayed on our TV screens and in the movies and video games! Violence, lust and all manner of evil. This is one of the major end of time signs. Our world today is aching under the burden of sin and I'm sure God will not allow it to continue for much longer.

And do you know the worst thing about "sin" today? It is made into "ENTERTAINMENT"! Through movies, television programs, radio, magazines, comics, you name it! The majority of people in this world today, including professed Christians are happily entertained by the very thing that put the Son of God on the cross! What an abomination!

And please note, I am not just talking about the sins of non Christians. A sure sign that we are living in the end times is the fact that the Christian churches are full of unconverted, sin loving people! Many of them thinking they don't need to keep the ten commandments, and can continue living in sin, as long as they "believe" in Jesus and go to church once a week. Yes, iniquity has abounded!

End Time Sign - CHRISTIANS TURN AWAY FROM TRUTH

2 Timothy 4:3-4 ...'For the time will come when they will not endure sound doctrine; but after their own lusts shall they heap to themselves teachers, having itching ears; And they shall turn away their ears from the truth, and shall be turned unto fables.'

This sign of the times has certainly been fulfilled in our generation. A great majority of professing Christians these days do not study the Bible much. Instead they just rely on their pastor's word as the truth. Let me give you an example. Back during the Protestant reformation, where many people died standing up for the truth of God's Word. God revealed a great truth to the world about who the antichrist was. All of the reformers knew the truth about the Roman Catholic Church being the Bible antichrist. But as time has gone on and false teachers have crept into the churches, the majority of Protestants now reject this great truth that God opened up to the early Protestant leaders, and they now EMBRACE that antichrist church and have become a part of Babylon!

The above end time sign from Timothy also says that they would be turned unto fables. Let me give you a few fables that the majority of Christians have been turned to. 1. The rapture. 2. Looking to Israel for fulfillment of end times prophecy. 3. Mark of the beast being a microchip. 4. The Battle of Armageddon being a physical battle. And there are many more.

Please see our prophecy site for the truth on these topics.

Great and precious truths were opened to the people of the Protestant reformation, but the reformation failed because the people did not continue seeking the truth. Although God does have a remnant church with the full gospel truth, we now live in a day where the majority have turned away from the truth and been turned to fables. This sign of the end times has certainly been fulfilled in our generation.

End Time Sign - GOD DESTROY THOSE WHO DESTROY EARTH

Revelation 11:18 ...'And the nations were angry, and thy wrath is come, and the time of the dead, that they should be judged, and that thou shouldest give reward unto thy servants the prophets, and to the saints, and them that fear thy name, small and great; and shouldest destroy them which destroy the earth.'

Are the nations angry today? Yes, we have uprisings, conflicts and wars ALL OVER the earth. And what about man destroying the earth? Well, all throughout history, the most dangerous weapon that man had was a bow and arrow. Man could not do much damage to the earth. But now just look at what man can do and IS doing to the earth through industry, destructive weapons of war, chemicals, oil exploration, depletion of the forests and so on. Just look at the massive oil spills that have happened during the past 30 years around the world.

Just recently, it was revealed that Russia had dumped enormous amounts of radioactive material into the ocean, including 17,000 containers of radioactive waste, 19 ships containing radioactive waste, 14 nuclear reactors, including five that still contain spent nuclear fuel; 735 other pieces of radioactively contaminated heavy machinery, and the K-27 nuclear submarine with its two reactors loaded with nuclear fuel (Link). The rivers and seas are becoming completely polluted, and man is certainly destroying the earth like no other time in history, and God's wrath is about to fall upon them!

We have been living in the time of judgment since 1844 and once the judgment has ended, THEN Christ Jesus will return to "reward" the saints and "destroy those who destroy the earth".

End Time Sign - GOSPEL PREACHED TO WORLD

Matthew 24:14 ...'And this gospel of the kingdom shall be preached in all the world for a witness unto all nations; and then shall the end come.'

Notice Jesus said "THIS" gospel? There are many "gospels" being preached out there, but it is the TRUE GOSPEL that is to be preached to the world before the end can come. So is this being fulfilled today as one of the end time signs? Yes, because God's people are preaching the true gospel throughout the world like never before, through the internet, tv and satellite, radio, in the pulpit, and through print. We have never had the resources available before to reach the world the way we can now. This ministry alone receives thousands of visits everyday from people from all over the world seeking the truth. So yes, this Bible sign is BEING fulfilled now.

What end time message is God's true servants taking to the world today? THE EVERLASTING GOSPEL OF REVELATION 14

Take a look at this interesting quote from the 1980's ... "Before the final end, the world is to hear the message of the Lord's coming. Had no more rapid means of conveyance and communication been found than existed a century ago, it would have been impossible to communicate such a message to one generation. But such a work must be done for the last generation ... Then the last generation everywhere must hear the message, and this calls for rapid transit, and lightning couriers to bear the tidings to various parts of the earth." (Bible Readings for the Home, 1988 Ed.)

And what do we have now for "rapid transit" of the gospel message around the world? The internet and satellite! We are living in a time like no other and the gospel message is soon to reach the final corners of the earth, and THEN the final stages of this earth's history will take place.

But what about all the different languages you may say? Well, ministries like Faith Comes by Hearing provides a free audio app that shares the Bible in 883 languages! And that number is growing all the time. So yes, the languages of the world are being reached with the Word of God.

For more end time signs and even more evidence that we are living in the last days, please see End of World Signs.

I hope that you can see from the above Biblical signs of the end times that our generation is truly living in the last days, nearing the second coming of Christ Jesus. We are living in a time like no other. The world is being turned upside down and we need to get ready! If you are not a Christian and you realize that we are living in the end times and are wondering what you need to do, then please click here to see what you must do to be saved. Give your heart to Christ Jesus. He is about to return to bring judgment upon the whole world.

"So likewise ye, when ye shall see all these things, know that it is near, even at the doors. Verily I say unto you, this generation shall not pass, till all these things be fulfilled." (Matthew 24:33-34)

www.signs-of-end-times.com

End Times Prophecy - Bible Studies and News for 2017

Dear reader! All that Bible prophecy said would happen, has happened. The signs are fulfilling and the final end time events of prophecy are upon us. "Multitudes, multitudes in the valley of decision: for the day of the LORD is near in the valley of decision."(Joel 3:14) Are you saved? See What Must I do to be Saved?

Warning: The false Sunday Sabbath, which is an institution of Rome, not God, is being exalted and the call will soon be made to enforce the Sunday law, due to all the world's trouble and so called climate change. But this will be the mark of the beast. Please heed and keep the TRUE Sabbath rest of the LORD, the 7th day Sabbath.

End times prophecy is fast being fulfilled. "The hour of temptation, which shall come upon all the world, to try them that dwell upon the earth." (Rev 3:10) will soon be upon us, and all who are not firmly established upon God's Word and the righteousness of Jesus Christ will be deceived and overcome. Satan "works with all power and signs and lying wonders .. with all deceivableness of unrighteousness" (2 Thess. 2:9-10) to gain control of mankind, and his deceptions will increase right up to the very end. Please surrender your life to Jesus Christ, the Son of God.

Jesus Christ is at the center of end times Bible prophecy. He is our righteousness and salvation. He is the truth. And Revelation 14:12 tells us that the saints are not those who merely have faith IN Jesus. But those who 'keep the commandments of God and the faith OF Jesus'. In other words, Jesus' faith is being lived out in their lives.

IS CHRIST LIVING IN YOU? (Galatians 2:20) ARE YOU CLOTHED WITH HIS RIGHTEOUSNESS?

Anyone who thinks they can get past Satan's deceptions without the truth of Christ and His righteousness are sorely mistaken. Only those who are earnestly seeking a knowledge of the truth and are striving to purify their souls through obedience, being doers of God's Word, will find in Jehovah, a sure defense. "Because thou hast kept the word of My patience, I also will keep thee." (Rev 3:10), is Christ's promise. The final events are upon us friends. It's time to turn from our sins and submit our lives fully to Jesus Christ.

"Now is the time when we should closely connect with Jesus, that we may be hid under His wings when the fierceness of God's wrath is poured upon the world. We have wandered away from the old Biblical landmarks. Let us return. If the Lord be God, serve Him; if Baal, serve him. Which side will you be on?" (Testimonies for the Church, Vol.5, p 137)

We are here to bring you the much needed truth about Bible prophecy and the latest news relating to the end times. This world is on the very edge of eternity and we are soon to see that "great and dreadful day of the Lord", when Jesus Christ with all His holy angels will burst upon the world with great glory to claim what is rightfully His. Are you saved? See What Must I do to be Saved?. Here you will not only be shown the truth about Bible prophecy and the end times, you will also receive wise council as to how you should be living in these last days, just before the second coming of Jesus.

Isaiah 58:1 ...'Cry aloud, spare not, lift up thy voice like a trumpet, and show my people their transgression, and the house of Jacob their sins.'

"In our work, we need men of moral independence, uncontaminated and unshackled, so that when a principle of religion or duty is at stake they will stand firm in defense of the truth. We need men who will not hold their peace when they see evils coming in and wrongs being done. We need men who will refuse to give consent by silence to unjust actions." (E.White, Manuscript Releases, Vol.9, Letter 116, 1905)

In studying Bible prophecy, you will find that it contains some of the most solemn warnings, and we are here to give those warnings to the world. We are truly living in the end times now, and as the Bible reveals in Revelation 12, Satan has come down to this earth with "great fury" knowing that his time is short, and he is using all his power to deceive us and keep us from Jesus Christ. We MUST make every effort to press into God's Kingdom and through the righteousness of Christ we can overcome the evil one. Here at end times prophecy we will not be moved by worldly excitement or false revivals, because we have our minds fixed within the Heavenly sanctuary, where Jesus resides. This is a time of great spiritual peril, and we are called to turn away from sin and live holy lives for our Creator God.

     

www.end-times-prophecy.org

End time - Gpedia, Your Encyclopedia

The end time (also called end times, end of time, end of days, last days, final days, or eschaton) is a future time-period described variously in the eschatologies of several world religions (both Abrahamic and non-Abrahamic), which believe that world events will achieve a final climax.

The Abrahamic faiths maintain a linear cosmology, with end-time scenarios containing themes of transformation and redemption. In Judaism, the term "end of days" makes reference to the Messianic Age and includes an in-gathering of the exiled Jewish diaspora, the coming of the Messiah, the resurrection of the righteous and the world to come. Some sects of Christianity depict the end time as a period of tribulation that precedes the second coming of Christ, who will face the Antichrist along with his power structure and usher in the Kingdom of God. However, other Christians believe that the end time represents the personal tribulation experienced before they become enlightened with the Word of God.[1] In Islam, the Day of Judgement is preceded by the appearance of the Mahdi mounted on a white stallion. With the help of Isa (Jesus), the Mahdi will triumph over Masih ad-Dajjal (the false messiah).

Non-Abrahamic faiths tend to have more cyclical world-views, with end-time eschatologies characterized by decay, redemption and rebirth. In Hinduism, the end time occurs when Kalki, the final incarnation of Vishnu, descends atop a white horse and brings an end to the current Kali Yuga. In Buddhism, the Buddha predicted that his teachings would be forgotten after 5,000 years, followed by turmoil. A bodhisattva named Maitreya will appear and rediscover the teaching of dharma. The ultimate destruction of the world will then come through seven suns.

Since the development of the concept of deep time in the 18th century and the calculation of the estimated age of the Earth, scientific discourse about end times has centered on the ultimate fate of the universe. Theories have included the Big Rip, Big Crunch, Big Bounce, and Big Freeze (Heat Death).

Linear cosmology

Zoroastrianism

Zoroastrian eschatology is considered one of the oldest in recorded history. The birth of its founder, Zoroaster, is unknown, with scholarly dates ranging from 6th century BCE to 5,500 years earlier. Pliny the Elder even suggests there were two Zoroasters.[2] However, with beliefs paralleling and possibly predating the framework of the major Abrahamic faiths, a fully developed concept of the end of the world was not established in Zoroastrianism until 500 BCE. The Bahman Yasht describes:

At the end of thy tenth hundredth winter, the sun is more unseen and more spotted; the year, month, and day are shorter; and the earth is more barren; and the crop will not yield the seed. And men become more deceitful and more given to vile practices. They will have no gratitude. Honorable wealth will proceed to those of perverted faith. And a dark cloud makes the whole sky night, and it will rain more noxious creatures than water.

A Manichaean battle between the righteous and wicked will be followed by the Frashokereti. On earth, the Saoshyant will arrive as the final savior of mankind, and bring about the resurrection of the dead. The yazatas Airyaman and Atar will melt the metal in the hills and mountains, which will flow as lava across the earth and all mankind, both the living and resurrected, will be required to wade through it. Ashavan will pass through the molten river as if it were warm milk, but the sinful will burn. It will then flow down to hell, where it will annihilate Angra Mainyu and the last vestiges of wickedness.

The righteous will partake of the parahaoma, which will confer immortality upon them. Humanity will become like the Amesha Spentas, living without food, hunger, thirst, weapons or injury. Bodies will become so light as to cast no shadow. All humanity will speak a single language, and belong to a single nation with no borders. All will share a single purpose and goal, joining with Ahura Mazda for a perpetual and divine exaltation.[3][4]

Judaism

In Judaism, the main textual source for the belief in the end of days and accompanying events is the Tanakh or Hebrew Bible. The Five Books of Moses (the Torah) describe a time when the Jewish people will not be able to keep the Laws of Moses in the Land of Israel, and will be exiled but ultimately redeemed. Major sources for this scenario include the books of Isaiah, Jeremiah and Ezekiel. Other books of the Hebrew Prophets also elaborate about the end of days.[5]

In rabbinic literature, rabbis elaborated and explained the prophecies that were found in the Hebrew Bible, along with oral law and rabbinic traditions about its significance.

The main tenets of Jewish eschatology, in no particular order, include:[5]

Tribulation and the Messianic Age

Most of tenets of Jewish eschatology appear in the Nevi'im, primarily in the books of Isaiah, Jeremiah and Ezekiel. Moses foretells the end of days in Deuteronomy, describing a time of apostasy, in which people of Israel become "settled upon their lees". They do not keep the Laws of Moses and resort to idolatry.[5]

[You will] corrupt yourselves, and make a graven image, or the likeness of any thing, and shall do evil in the sight of the Lord thy God, to provoke him to anger: 26 I call heaven and earth to witness against you this day, that ye shall soon utterly perish from off the land whereunto ye go over Jordan to possess it; ye shall not prolong your days upon it, but shall utterly be destroyed. 27 And the Lord shall scatter you among the nations, and ye shall be left few in number among the heathen, whither the Lord shall lead you. 28 And there ye shall serve gods, the work of men's hands, wood and stone, which neither see, nor hear, nor eat, nor smell.

The Book of Isaiah describes a time of judgment in Isaiah 2:4: "And he shall judge among the nations, and shall rebuke many people."

The Messianic Age will follow - an era of global peace, free of global strife, and conducive to the knowledge of the creator. A well-known passage from the Book of Isaiah describes this future condition of the world:

They shall beat their swords into plowshares and their spears into pruning hooks; nation will not lift sword against nation and they will no longer study warfare".

Maimonides (1135-1204) further describes the Messianic Era in the Mishneh Torah:

And at that time there will be no hunger or war, no jealousy or rivalry. For the good will be plentiful, and all delicacies available as dust. The entire occupation of the world will be only to know God... the people Israel will be of great wisdom; they will perceive the esoteric truths and comprehend their Creator's wisdom as is the capacity of man. As it is written (Isaiah 11:9): "For the earth shall be filled with the knowledge of God, as the waters cover the sea.

— Mishneh Torah, Laws of Kings 12:5

In the Talmud,[6] the Midrash,[7] and the medieval kabbalistic work, the Zohar,[8] the messiah must arrive before the year 6000 from the time of creation, or before the year 2240 AD. The Midrash comments, "Six eons for going in and coming out, for war and peace. The seventh eon is entirely Shabbat and rest for life everlasting."[7]

The Zohar[9] maintains that the seven days of the week, based on the seven days of creation, correspond to the seven millennia of creation. The seventh day of the week, the Shabbat day of rest, corresponds to the seventh millennium, the age of universal rest, or the Messianic Era. The seventh millennium begins with the year 6000 AM, and is the latest time the Messiah can come. A number of early and late Jewish scholars have written in support of this, including the Ramban,[10]Isaac Abrabanel,[11]Abraham Ibn Ezra,[12] Rabbeinu Bachya,[13] the Vilna Gaon,[14] the Lubavitcher Rebbe,[15] the Ramchal,[16]Aryeh Kaplan[17] and Rebbetzin Esther Jungreis.[18]

Christianity

Date

Some first century Christians believed Jesus would return during their lifetime. When the converts of Paul in Thessalonica were persecuted by the Roman Empire, they believed the end of days to be imminent.[19]

While some who believe in the literal interpretation of the Bible insist that the prediction of dates or times is futile, others believe Jesus foretold signs of the end of days. The precise time, however, will come like a "thief in the night" (1 Thess. 5:2). They may also refer to Matthew 24:36 in which Jesus is quoted as saying:

"But concerning that day and hour no one knows, not even the angels of heaven, nor the Son, but the Father only."

Great Tribulation

In the New Testament, Jesus refers to this period preceding the end times as the "Great Tribulation" (Matthew 24:21), "Affliction"(Mark 13:19), and "days of vengeance"(Luke 21:22).

The Book of Matthew describes the devastation:

When ye therefore shall see the abomination of desolation, spoken of by Daniel the prophet, stand in the holy place, (whoso readeth, let him understand). Then let them which be in Judaea flee into the mountains. Let him which is on the housetop not come down...Neither let him which is in the field return back to take his clothes, and woe unto them that are with child...For then shall be great tribulation, such as was not since the beginning of the world to this time, no, nor ever shall be. And except those days should be shortened, there should no flesh be saved: but for the elect's sake those days shall be shortened.

The resulting chaos will affect pregnancies, newborns, and a scourge will spread throughout the flesh, save for the elect. The vivid imagery of this section is repeated closely in Mark 13:14–20.

The Gospel of Luke describes a complete unraveling of the social fabric, with widespread calamity and war:

Then he said to them, “Nation will rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom. There will be great earthquakes, and in various places famines and pestilences. And there will be terrors and great signs from heaven. But before all this they will lay their hands on you and persecute you, delivering you up to the synagogues and prisons, and you will be brought before kings and governors for my name's sake. This will be your opportunity to bear witness. Settle it therefore in your minds not to meditate beforehand how to answer, for I will give you a mouth and wisdom, which none of your adversaries will be able to withstand or contradict. You will be delivered up even by parents and brothers and relatives and friends, and some of you they will put to death. You will be hated by all for my name's sake. But not a hair of your head will perish. By your endurance you will gain your lives.

“But when you see Jerusalem surrounded by armies, then know that its desolation has come near. Then let those who are in Judea flee to the mountains, and let those who are inside the city depart, and let not those who are out in the country enter it, for these are days of vengeance, to fulfill all that is written. Alas for women who are pregnant and for those who are nursing infants in those days! For there will be great distress upon the earth and wrath against this people. They will fall by the edge of the sword and be led captive among all nations, and Jerusalem will be trampled underfoot by the Gentiles, until the times of the Gentiles are fulfilled.

“And there will be signs in sun and moon and stars, and on the earth distress of nations in perplexity because of the roaring of the sea and the waves, people fainting with fear and with foreboding of what is coming on the world. For the powers of the heavens will be shaken. And then they will see the Son of Man coming in a cloud with power and great glory. Now when these things begin to take place, straighten up and raise your heads, because your redemption is drawing near.”

And he told them a parable: “Look at the fig tree, and all the trees. As soon as they come out in leaf, you see for yourselves and know that the summer is already near. So also, when you see these things taking place, you know that the kingdom of God is near. Truly, I say to you, this generation will not pass away until all has taken place. Heaven and earth will pass away, but my words will not pass away.
Catholicism

The Profession of Faith addresses Catholic beliefs concerning the Last Days.[20] Catholicism adheres to the amillennial school of thought, promoted by Augustine of Hippo in his work The City of God.

Protestantism

Protestants are divided between Millennialists and Amillennialists. Millennialists concentrate on the issue of whether the true believers will see the tribulation or be removed from it by what is referred to as a Pre-Tribulation Rapture. Amillennialists believe that the end times encompass the time from Christ's ascension to the Last day, and maintain that the mention of the "thousand years" in the Book of Revelation is meant to be taken metaphorically (i.e., not literally, or 'spiritually'), a view which continues to cause divisions within evangelical Christianity.

There is a range of eschatological belief in Protestant Christianity. Christian premillennialists who believe that the End Times are occurring now, are usually specific about timelines that climax in the end of the world. For some, Israel, the European Union, or the United Nations are seen as major players whose roles were foretold in scripture. Within dispensational premillennialist writing, there is the belief that Christians will be summoned to Heaven by Christ at the Rapture, occurring before a "Great Tribulation" prophesied in Matthew 24–25; Mark 13 and Luke 21. The Tribulation is described in the book of Revelation.

"End times" may also refer to the passing of an age or long period in the relationship between man and God.[21] Adherents to this view cite the Second Epistle to Timothy and draw analogies to the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries.

Post-Exilic Hebrew books of prophecy such as Daniel and Ezekiel are given new interpretations in this tradition, while in apocalyptic forecasts appear in the Judeo-Christian Sibylline Oracles which include the Book of Revelation ascribed to John, the apocryphal Apocalypse of Peter, and the Second Book Of Esdras.

Most fundamentalist Christians anticipate biblical prophecy to be literally fulfilled. They see current wars, natural disaster and famine as the birth pangs which Jesus described in Matthew 24:7–8 and Mark 13:8. They believe that mankind began in the garden of Eden, and point to the Valley of Megiddo as the place where the current world system will terminate, after which the Messiah will rule for 1,000 years.

Contemporary use of the term End Times has evolved from literal belief in Christian millennialism. In this tradition, Biblical apocalypse is believed to be imminent, with various current events as omens of impending Armageddon. These beliefs have been put forward by the Adventist movement (Millerites), Jehovah's Witnesses, and dispensational premillennialists. In 1918 a group of eight well known preachers produced the London Manifesto, warning of an imminent second coming of Christ shortly after the 1917 liberation of Jerusalem by the British.

Icon of the Second Coming. Greek, ca. 1700 A.D.

Religious movements which expect that the second coming of Christ as a cataclysmic event are generally called adventism. These have arisen throughout the Christian era, but were particularly common after the Protestant Reformation. Emanuel Swedenborg considered the second coming to be symbolic, and to have occurred in 1757. Along with others, he developed a religious system around the second coming of Christ, disclosed by new prophecy or special revelation not described in the Bible. The Millerites are diverse religious groups which similarly rely upon a special gift of interpretation for predicting the second coming.

The difference between the 19th century Millerite and Adventist movements and contemporary prophecy is that William Miller and his followers, based on Biblical interpretation, predicted the time of the Second Coming to have occurred in 1844. Contemporary writing of end time has suggested that the timetable will be triggered by future wars and moral catastrophe, and that this time of tribulation is close at hand.

Seventh-day Adventists believe Biblical prophecy to foretell an end time scenario in which the United States works in conjunction with the Catholic Church to mandate worship on a day other than the true Sabbath, Saturday, as prescribed in the Ten Commandments (Exodus 20:8–11). This will bring about a situation where one must choose for or against the Bible as the will of God.[22]

Preterism

Another view of the end times is preterism. It distinguishes the time of the end from the end of time. Preterists believe the term Last Days (or Time of the End) refers to, neither the last days of the Earth, nor the last days of humankind, but the end of the Old Covenant between God and Israel; which, according to preterism, took place when the Temple in Jerusalem which was destroyed in 70 CE.

Preterists believe that prophecies — such as the Second Coming, the desecration of the Jewish Temple, the destruction of Jerusalem, the rise of the Antichrist, the Great Tribulation, the advent of The Day of the Lord, and a Final Judgment — had been fulfilled when the Romans sacked Jerusalem and completely destroyed its Temple.

Proponents of full preterism do not believe in a coming resurrection of the dead. They place this event (as well as the Second Coming) in the year 70. Advocates of partial preterism do believe in a coming resurrection. Full preterists contend that partial preterists are merely futurists, since they believe the Second Coming, the Resurrection, the Rapture, and the Judgment are yet to come.

Many preterists believe that first-century Christians experienced the Rapture to rejoin the Christ.

According with Preterism's interpretation of end times, many "time passages" in the New Testament foretell a Second Coming of Christ, with Last Days to take place within the lifetimes of his disciples: Matt. 10:23, Matt. 16:28, Matt. 24:34, Matt. 26:64, Rom. 13:11–12, 1 Cor. 7:29–31, 1 Cor. 10:11, Phil. 4:5, James 5:8–9, 1 Pet. 4:7, 1 Jn. 2:18.

Dispensationalist prophecies
A celebratory crowd gathered in Tel Aviv to hear the Declaration of Independence. The reestablishment of Israel provided impetus to dispensationalism.

Dispensationalism is an evangelica futurist Bibilical interpretation that foresees a series of dispensations, or periods, in which God relates to human beings under different Biblical covenants. The belief system is primarily rooted in the writings of John Nelson Darby and is premillennial in content. The reestablishment of Israel in 1948 provided a major impetus to the dispensationalist belief system. The wars of Israel after 1948 with its Arab neighbors provided further support, according to John F. Walvoord.[23] After the Six Day War in 1967, and the Yom Kippur War in 1973, it seemed plausible to many Fundamentalist Christians in the 1970s that Middle East turmoil may well be leading up to the fulfillment of various Bible prophecies and to the Battle of Armageddon.

Members of the dispensationalist movement such as Hal Lindsey, J. Dwight Pentecost, John Walvoord, all of whom have Dallas Theological Seminary backgrounds, and some other writers, claimed further that the European Economic Community, which preceded the European Union, would become a United States of Europe, which would in turn become a Revived Roman Empire ruled by the Antichrist. The Revived Roman Empire also figured into the New Testament writers' vision of the future. The fact that in the early 1970s, there were (erroneously thought to be) seven nations in the European Economic Community was held to be significant; this aligned the Community with a seven-headed beast mentioned in Revelation. This specific prophecy has required revision, but the idea of a Revived Roman Empire remains.

The separate destinies of the Church and Israel, a belief which is inherent in dispensationalism, is a particular concern to some Jews and evangelical Christians. Evangelicals who reject dispensationalism, such as those who hold to a Post Tribulation Rapture, (or more accurately a Post Tribulation Resurrection-Rapture), see both the Church and Israel entering the crucible of the End Time together. "The Jerusalem Declaration on Christian Zionism". Riah Abu El-Assal, Swerios Malki Mourad, His Beatitude Michel Sabbah, Bishop Dr. Munib Younan. 

Dispensationalism, in contrast to the Millerite Adventist movement, had its beginning in the 19th century, when John Nelson Darby, founder of the Plymouth Brethren religious denomination, incorporated into his system of Biblical interpretation a system of organizing Biblical time into a number of discrete dispensations, each of which marks a separate covenant with God. Darby's beliefs were widely publicized in Cyrus I. Scofield's Scofield Reference Bible, an annotated Bible that became popular in the United States of America.

Since the majority of the Biblical prophets were writing at a time when the Temple in Jerusalem was still functioning, they wrote as if it would still be standing during the prophesied events. According to preterism, this was a fulfillment of the prophecies. However, according to Futurists, their destruction in AD 70 put the prophetic timetable on hold. Many such believers therefore anticipated the return of Jews to Israel and the reconstruction of the Temple before the Second Coming could occur. [24][25]

Post-tribulation pre-millennialists

A view of the Second Coming of Christ as held by post-tribulational pre-millennialists holds that the Church of Christ will have to undergo great persecution by being present during the great tribulation.

Specific prophetic movements

In 1843, William Miller made the first of several predictions that the world would end in only a few months. As his predictions did not come true (referred to as the Great Disappointment), followers of Miller went on to found separate groups, the most successful of which is the Seventh-day Adventist Church.

Members of the Bahá'í Faith believe that Miller's interpretation of signs and dates of the coming of Jesus were, for the most part, correct.[26] They believe that the fulfillment of biblical prophecies of the coming of Christ came through a forerunner of their own religion, the Báb. According to the Báb's words, 4 April 1844 was "the first day that the Spirit descended" into his heart.[27] His subsequent declaration to Mullá Husayn-i Bushru'i that he was the "Promised One"—an event now commemorated by Bahá'ís as a major holy day—took place on 23 May 1844. It was in October of that year that the Báb embarked on a pilgrimage to Mecca, where he openly declared his claims to the Sharif of Mecca.[28][29] The first news coverage of these events in the West was in 1845 by The Times,[30] followed by others in 1850 in the United States.[31] The first Bahá'í to come to America was in 1892.[28] Several Bahá'í books and pamphlets make mention of the Millerites, the prophecies used by Miller and the Great Disappointment, most notably William Sears's Thief in the Night.[32][33][34]

Restorationism (Christian primitivism)

End times theology is also significant to restorationist Christian religions, which consider themselves distinct from both Catholicism and Protestantism.

Jehovah's Witnesses
Current Watch Tower headquarters in Brooklyn. The society made a number of emphatic claims of impending last days and ensuing chaos between 1879–1924.

The eschatology of Jehovah's Witnesses is central to their religious beliefs. They believe that Jesus Christ has been ruling in heaven as king since 1914 (a date they believe was prophesied in Scripture), and that after that time a period of cleansing occurred, resulting in God's selection of the Bible Students associated with Charles Taze Russell to be his people in 1919. They also believe the destruction of those who reject their message[35] and thus willfully refuse to obey God[36][37] will shortly take place at Armageddon, ensuring that the beginning of the new earthly society will be composed of willing subjects of that kingdom.

The religion's doctrines surrounding 1914 are the legacy of a series of emphatic claims regarding the years 1799,[38] 1874,[38] 1878,[39] 1914,[40] 1918[41] and 1925[42] made in the Watch Tower Society's publications between 1879 and 1924. Claims about the significance of those years, including the presence of Jesus Christ, the beginning of the "last days", the destruction of worldly governments and the earthly resurrection of Jewish patriarchs, were successively abandoned.[43] In 1922 the society's principal journal, The Watchtower, described its chronology as "no stronger than its weakest link", but also claimed the chronological relationships to be "of divine origin and divinely corroborated...in a class by itself, absolutely and unqualifiedly correct"[44] and "indisputable facts",[38] while repudiation of Russell's teachings was described as "equivalent to a repudiation of the Lord".[45]

The Watch Tower Society has admitted its early leaders promoted "incomplete, even inaccurate concepts".[46] The Governing Body of Jehovah's Witnesses says that, unlike Old Testament prophets, its interpretations of the Bible are not inspired or infallible.[47][48][49]Witness publications say that Bible prophecies can be fully understood only after their fulfillment, citing examples of biblical figures who did not understand the meaning of prophecies they received. Watch Tower publications often cite Proverbs 4:18, "The path of the righteous ones is like the bright light that is getting lighter and lighter until the day is firmly established" (NWT) to support their view that there would be an increase in knowledge during "the time of the end", as mentioned in Daniel 12:4. Jehovah's Witnesses state that this increase in knowledge needs adjustments. Watch Tower publications also say that unfulfilled expectations are partly due to eagerness for God's Kingdom and that they do not call their core beliefs into question.[50][51][52]

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

Members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints believe that there will be a Second Coming of Jesus to the earth sometime in the future. The LDS Church and its leaders do not make any predictions of the actual date of the Second Coming.

According to church doctrine, the true gospel will be taught in all parts of the world prior to the Second Coming.[53] They also believe that there will be increasing war, earthquakes, hurricanes, and man-made disasters prior to the Second Coming.[54] Disasters of all kind will happen before Christ comes.[55] Upon the return of Jesus Christ, all people will be resurrected in order of righteousness. Christ shall reign for a period of 1000 years, after which Satan and his followers will be destroyed and the Final Judgement will occur.

Islam

Muslims believe that there are three periods before the Day of Judgment, also known as ashratu's-sa'ah or alamatu qiyami's-sa'ah, with some debate as to whether the periods could overlap.[56][57][58]

According to Harun Yahya, the first period is said to have begun with the death of Muhammad. The second began with the passing of all his Companions, and ended a thousand years later. Another event of the second period was the Tartar invasion, occurring 650 years after Muhammad. The Mongols, led by Hulagu Khan, grandson of Genghis Khan, attacked Baghdad in 1258 AD and brought the Abbasid caliphate to an end. They massacred millions of Muslims, and the water of the river Tigris turned red with blood. A Hadeeth also predicted a fire at Madinah in the Hijaz near Busra in Syria, which Islamic scholars believe occurred in 654 AH. Following the second, the third and final period will be heralded by the appearance of the Mahdi.[56]

Sunni

Sunnis believe that the dead will then stand in a grand assembly, awaiting a scroll detailing their righteous deeds, sinful acts and ultimate judgment.[59][60]Muhammad will be the first to be resurrected.[61] Punishments will include adhab, or severe pain and embarrassment, and khizy or shame.[62] There will also be a punishment of the grave between death and the resurrection.[63]

The signs of the coming end time are divided into major and minor signs:

Major signs

Following the second period, the third is said to be marked by the ten major signs known as alamatu's-sa'ah al- kubra (The major signs of the end).[note 1] They are as follows:

  1. The false messiah (anti-Christ), Masih ad-Dajjal, shall appear with huge powers as a one eyed man with the right eye blind and deformed like a grape. He will claim to be God and to hold keys to heaven and hell and lead many astray, although believers will not be deceived.[64] In reality, his heaven is the hell, and his hell is the heaven. The Dajjal would be followed by seventy thousand Jews of Isfahan wearing Persian shawls.[note 2]
  2. The return of Isa (Jesus), from the fourth sky to kill Dajjal.[65]
  3. Ya'jooj and Ma'jooj (Gog and Magog), Japhetic tribe of vicious beings which had been imprisoned by Dhul-Qarnayn will break out. They will ravage the earth, drink all the water of Lake Tiberias, and kill all believers in their way (or see). Isa, Imam Al-Mahdi, and the believers with them will go to the top of a mountain and pray for the destruction of Gog and Magog. God will eventually send disease and worms to wipe them out.[note 3][66]
  4. A huge black smoke cloud will cover the earth.[67]
  5. Dabbat al-ard, or the Beast that will come out of the ground to talk to people.[note 4]
  6. The sun will rise from the west.[68][69]
  7. Three sinking of the earth, one in the east,[67]
  8. One in the west,[67]
  9. And one in Arabia.[67]
  10. The second trumpet blow will be sounded, the dead will return to life and a fire will start come out of Yemen that shall gather all to Mahshar Al Qiy'amah (The Gathering for Judgment).[56]
Shia

Concepts and terminology in Shia eschatology includes Mi'ad, The Occultation and Al-Yamani, Sufyani In Twelver Shia hadiths about the last days, the literature largely revolves around Muhammad al-Mahdi, a messianic figure considered to be the twelfth appointed successor to Muhammad. Mahdi will help mankind against the deception by a man called Dajjal who will try to get people in to a new world religion which is called "the great deception".[70]

Ahmadiyya

Ahmadiyya is considered distinct from mainstream Islam. In its writing, the present age has been witness to the evil of man and wrath of God, with war and natural disaster.[71]Ghulam Ahmad is seen as the promised Messiah and the Mahdi, fulfilling Islamic and Biblical prophecies, as well as scriptures of other religions such as Hinduism. His teaching will establish spiritual reform and establish an age of peace. This will continue for a thousand years, and will unify mankind under one faith.[72]

Ahmadis believe that despite harsh and strong opposition and discrimination they will eventually be triumphant and their message vindicated both by Muslims and non-Muslims alike. Ahmadis also incorporate the eschatological views from other religions into their doctrine and believe that Mirza Ghulam Ahmed falls into this sequence.[73]

Bahá'í Faith

The founder of the Bahá'í Faith, Bahá'u'lláh claimed that he was the return of Christ as well as prophetic expectations of other religions.[74] The inception of the Bahá'í Faith coincides with Millerite prophesy, pointing to the year 1844. They also believe the Battle of Armageddon has passed and that the mass martyrdom anticipated during the End Times had already passed within the historical context of the Bahá'í Faith.[75][76] Bahá'ís expect their faith to be eventually embraced by the masses of the world, ushering in a golden age.

Rastafari movement

Rastafarians have a unique interpretation of end times, based on the Old Testament and the Book of Revelation. They believe Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie I to be God incarnate, the King of kings and Lord of lords mentioned in Revelation 5:5. They saw the crowning of Selassie as the second coming, and the Second Italo-Ethiopian War as fulfillment of Revelation. There is also the expectation that Selassie will return for a day of judgment and bring home the lost children of Israel, which in Rastafarianism refer to those taken from Africa through the slave trade. There will then be an era of peace and harmony at Mount Zion in Africa.[77]

Cyclic cosmology

Norse religion

Odin fighting his old nemesis Fenrir

Norse mythology depicts the end of days as Ragnarök, an Old Norse term translatable as "twilight of the gods". It will be heralded by a devastation known as Fimbulvetr which will seize Midgard in cold and darkness. The sun and moon will disappear from the sky, and poison will fill the air. Dead will rise from the ground and there will be widespread despair.

There follows a battle between - on the one hand - the Gods with the Æsir, Vanir[citation needed] and Einherjar, led by Odin, and - on the other hand - forces of Chaos, including the fire giants and jötunn, led by Loki. In the fighting Odin will be swallowed whole by his old nemesis Fenrir.[78] The god Freyr fights Surtr but loses. Víðarr, son of Odin, will then avenge his father by ripping Fenrir's jaws apart and stabbing the wolf in the heart with his spear. The serpent Jörmungandr will open its gaping maw and be met in combat by Thor. Thor, also a son of Odin, will defeat the serpent, only to take nine steps afterwards before collapsing to his own death.[79]

After this people will flee their homes as the sun blackens and the earth sinks into the sea. The stars will vanish, steam will rise, and flames will touch the heavens. This conflict will result in the deaths of most of the major Gods and forces of Chaos. Finally, Surtr will fling fire across the nine worlds. The ocean will then completely submerge Midgard.[80]

After the cataclysm the world will resurface new and fertile, and the surviving Gods will meet. The two human survivors, Líf and Lífþrasir, will then repopulate this new earth.[81]

Ragnarök after Surtr has engulfed the world with fire

Hinduism

In Hindu eschatology, time is cyclic and consists of kalpas. Each lasts 4.1 – 8.2 billion years, which is a period of one full day and night for Brahma, who will be alive for 311 trillion, 40 billion years. Within a kalpa there are periods of creation, preservation and decline. After this larger cycle, all of creation will contract to a singularity and then again will expand from that single point, as the ages continue in a religious fractal pattern.[58]

Within the current kalpa, there are four epochs that encompass the cycle. They progress from a beginning of complete purity to a descent into total corruption. The last of the four ages is Kali Yuga, our current time, during which will be characterized by impiety, violence and decay. The four pillars of dharma will be reduced to one, with truth being all that remains.[82] As written in the Gita:

Yadā yadā hi dharmasya glānirbhavati BhārataAbhyutthānam adharmasya tadātmānam sṛjāmyaham

Whenever there is decay of righteousness O! BharataAnd a rise of unrighteousness then I manifest Myself![83]

At this time of chaos, the final avatar, Kalki, endowed with eight superhuman faculties will appear on a white horse. Kalki will amass an army to "establish righteousness upon the earth" and leave "the minds of the people as pure as crystal."

At the completion of Kali Yuga, the next cycle will begin with a new Satya Yuga, in which all will once again be righteous with the reestablishment of dharma. This, in turn, will be followed by epochs of Treta Yuga, Dwapara Yuga and again another Kali Yuga. This cycle will then repeat till the larger cycle of existence under Brahma returns to the singularity, and a new universe is born.[77]

Buddhism

There are two major points of Buddhist eschatology, the appearance of Maitreya, followed by the Sermon of the Seven Suns.

Maitreya

Buddha described his teachings disappearing five thousand years from when he preached them, corresponding approximately to the year 2300. At this time, knowledge of dharma will be lost as well. The last of his relics will be gathered in Bodh Gaya and cremated.[citation needed] There will be a new era in which the next Buddha Maitreya will appear, but it will be preceded by the degeneration of human society. This will be a period of greed, lust, poverty, ill will, violence, murder, impiety, physical weakness, sexual depravity and societal collapse, and even the Buddha himself will be forgotten.[58]

This will be followed by the coming of Maitreya when the teachings of dharma are forgotten. Maitreya was the first Bodhisattva around whom a cult developed, in approximately the 3rd century CE.[84]

The earliest mention of Maitreya is in the Cakavatti, or Sihanada Sutta in Digha Nikaya 26 of the Pali Canon. In it, Gautama Buddha predicted that his teachings of dharma would be forgotten after 5,000 years.

“At that period, brethren, there will arise in the world an Exalted One named Maitreya, Fully Awakened, abounding in wisdom and goodness, happy, with knowledge of the worlds, unsurpassed as a guide to mortals willing to be led, a teacher for gods and men, an Exalted One, a Buddha, even as I am now. He, by himself, will thoroughly know and see, as it were face to face, this universe, with Its worlds of the spirits, Its Brahmas and Its Maras, and Its world of recluses and Brahmins, of princes and peoples, even as I now, by myself, thoroughly know and see them”

— Digha Nikaya, 26

Maitreya Buddha is then foretold to be born in the city of Ketumatī in present-day Benares, whose king will be the Cakkavattī Sankha. Sankha will live in the former palace of King Mahāpanadā, and will become a renunciate who follows Maitreya.[85][86]

In Mahayana Buddhism, Maitreya will attain bodhi in seven days, the minimum period, by virtue of his many lifetimes of preparation. Once Buddha, he will rule over the Ketumati Pure Land, an earthly paradise sometimes associated with the Indian city of Varanasi or Benares in Uttar Pradesh. In Mahayana Buddhism, the Buddha presides over a land of purity. For example, Amitabha presides over Sukhavati, more popularly known as the 'Western Paradise'.[87]

Bodhisattva Maitreya from the 2nd Century Gandharan Art Period

A notable teaching he will rediscover is that of the ten non-virtuous deeds—killing, stealing, sexual misconduct, lying, divisive speech, abusive speech, idle speech, covetousness, harmful intent and wrong views. These will be replaced by the ten virtuous deeds, which are the abandonment of each of these practices. He is described by Conze in his Buddhist Scriptures:

The Lord replied, 'Maitreya, the best of men, will then leave the Tuṣita heavens, and go for his last rebirth. As soon as he is born he will walk seven steps forward, and where he puts down his feet a jewel or a lotus will spring up. He will raise his eyes to the ten directions, and will speak these words: "This is my last birth. There will be no rebirth after this one. Never will I come back here, but, all pure, I shall win Nirvana."

— Buddhist Scriptures [88]

He currently resides in Tushita, but will come to Jambudvipa when needed most as successor to the historic Śākyamuni Buddha. Maitreya will achieve complete enlightenment during his lifetime, and following this reawakening, he will bring back the timeless teaching of dharma to this plane and rediscover enlightenment.[89] The Arya Maitreya Mandala, founded by Lama Anagarika Govinda is based on the idea of Maitreya.

Maitreya eschatology forms the central canon of the White Lotus Society, a revolutionary movement during British colonial rule. It later branched into the Chinese underground criminal organization known as the Triad, which exists today as an international underground criminal network.

It is of note that description of Maitreya occurs in no other sutta in the canon, casting doubt as to authenticity of the scripture. In addition, sermons of the Buddha normally are in response to a question, or in a specific context, but this sutta has a beginning and an ending, and its content is quite different from the others. This has led some to conclude that the whole sutta is apocryphal, or tampered with.[89]

Sermon of the Seven Suns

In his "Sermon of the Seven Suns" in the Pali Canon, the Buddha describes the ultimate fate of the world in an apocalypse that will be characterized by the consequent appearance of seven suns in the sky, each causing progressive ruin till the Earth is destroyed:

All things are impermanent, all aspects of existence are unstable and non-eternal. Beings will become so weary and disgusted with the constituent things that they will seek emancipation from them more quickly. There will come a season, O monks when, after hundreds of thousands of years, rains will cease. All seedlings, all vegetation, all plants, grasses and trees will dry up and cease to be...There comes another season after a great lapse of time when a second sun will appear. Now all brooks and ponds will dry up, vanish, cease to be.

— Aňguttara-Nikăya, VII, 6.2 Pali Canon[58]

The canon goes on to describe the progressive destruction of each sun. A third sun will dry the mighty Ganges and other great rivers. A fourth will cause the great lakes to evaporate, and a fifth will dry the oceans. Finally:

Again after a vast period of time a sixth sun will appear, and it will bake the Earth even as a pot is baked by a potter. All the mountains will reek and send up clouds of smoke. After another great interval a seventh sun will appear and the Earth will blaze with fire until it becomes one mass of flame. The mountains will be consumed, a spark will be carried on the wind and go to the worlds of God....Thus, monks, all things will burn, perish and exist no more except those who have seen the path.

— Aňguttara-Nikăya, VII, 6.2 Pali Canon[58]

The sermon completes with the planet engulfed by a vast inferno. The Pali Canon does not indicate when this will happen relative to Maitreya.[58]

See also

Notes

References

  1. ^ Chang Soppe, S.L. (2014) God's Mystery That Is Christ, Bloomington, IN: WestBow Press
  2. ^ West 2013, pp. 89–109
  3. ^ Taylor, Richard P. (2000), Death and Afterlife: A Cultural Encyclopedia, ABC-CLIO, p. 312 .
  4. ^ Boyce, Mary (1979), Zoroastrians: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, pp. 27–29, ISBN 978-0-415-23902-8 .
  5. ^ a b c d "Jewish Eschatology". Jewish Encyclopedia. Retrieved 1 May 2012. 
  6. ^ Babylonian Talmud Rosh Hashana 31a and Sanhedrin 97a
  7. ^ a b Pirke De Rabbi Eliezer, Gerald Friedlander, Sepher-Hermon Press, New York, 1981, p. 141.
  8. ^ Zohar (1:117a) and Zohar Vayera 119a
  9. ^ Zohar, Vayera 119a
  10. ^ Ramban on Genesis (2:3)
  11. ^ Abarbanel on Genesis 2
  12. ^ Ramban quoting Ibn Ezra at Leviticus (25:2)
  13. ^ Bachya on Genesis 2:3
  14. ^ Safra D'Tzniusa, Ch. 5
  15. ^ Sefer HaSichos 5750:254
  16. ^ Derech Hashem 4:7:2
  17. ^ Page 318, The Real Messiah Kaplan, Aryeh (1 August 1991). The Aryeh Kaplan Anthology: Illuminating Expositions on Jewish Thought and Practice by a Revered Teacher. Mesorah Publications. ISBN 9780899068664. Retrieved 2 September 2015. 
  18. ^ Fleisher, Malkah (2008-10-27). "'It's Erev Shabbos of the World' – Jewish World – News". Israel National News. Retrieved 2011-11-21. 
  19. ^ See 2 Thessalonians chapter 2 and Son of perdition.
  20. ^ An explanation of these beliefs appears on the Holy See's website
  21. ^ Chang Soppe, Seok Lyun (2014). God's Mystery That Is Christ. WestBow Press. ISBN 1490815945. 
  22. ^ "How Seventh-day Adventists View Roman Catholicism".  – Main Statements of Belief from the official Adventist Church website.
  23. ^ John F. Walvoord (1990) [1974]. "Armageddon, Oil and the Middle East Crisis". 
  24. ^ "Proclamation of the 3rd International Zionist Congress". Christian Action For Israel. 25 February 1996. Archived from the original on 19 July 2012. Retrieved 27 November 2012. 
  25. ^ "The Untold Story: The Role of Christian Zionists in the Establishment of Modern-day Israel". Rabbi Jamie Cowen. 13 Jul 2002. Retrieved 27 Nov 2012. 
  26. ^ Momen, Moojan (1992). "Fundamentalism and Liberalism: towards an understanding of the dichotomy". Bahá'í Studies Review. 2 (1). 
  27. ^ Momen, Moojan (2007). "Messianic Concealment and Theophanic Disclosure" (PDF). Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies. 1: 71–88. ISSN 1177-8547. Retrieved 2012-04-14. 
  28. ^ a b Cameron, G.; Momen, W. (1996). A Basic Bahá'í Chronology. Oxford, UK: George Ronald. pp. 15–20, 125. ISBN 0-85398-404-2. 
  29. ^ Shoghi Effendi Rabbani. God Passes By. p. 9. 
  30. ^ Momen, Moojan (1999). "Early Western Accounts of the Babi and Baha'i Faiths". Encyclopedia articles. Bahá'í Library Online. Retrieved 2012-02-02. 
  31. ^ "Early mention of Bábís in western newspapers, summer 1850". Historical documents and Newspaper articles. Bahá'í Library Online. September 17, 2010. Retrieved 2012-04-14. 
  32. ^ Sears, William (1961). Thief in the Night. London: George Ronald. ISBN 0-85398-008-X. 
  33. ^ Bowers, Kenneth E. (2004). God Speaks Again: An Introduction to the Bahá'í Faith. Baha'i Publishing Trust. p. 12. ISBN 1-931847-12-6. 
  34. ^ Motlagh, Hushidar Hugh (1992). I Shall Come Again (The Great Disappointment ed.). Mt. Pleasant, MI: Global Perspective. pp. 205–213. ISBN 0-937661-01-5. 
  35. ^ "The House-to-House Ministry—Why Important Now?". The Watchtower. 15 July 2008. pp. 5–6. 
  36. ^ You Can Live Forever in Paradise on Earth, Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, 1989, p. 155.
  37. ^ Revelation—Its Grand Climax at Hand!, Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, 1988, p. 6.
  38. ^ a b c The Watchtower, 1 March 1922, page 73, "The indisputable facts, therefore, show that the 'time of the end' began in 1799; that the Lord's second presence began in 1874."
  39. ^ "Our Faith" (PDF). The Herald of the Morning. September 1875. p. 52. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-05-12. 
  40. ^ The Watchtower, July 15, 1894, p. 1677: "We see no reason for changing the figures—nor could we change them if we would. They are, we believe, God's dates, not ours. But bear in mind that the end of 1914 is not the date for the beginning, but for the end of the time of trouble."
  41. ^ 1 September 1916 The Watchtower, pages 264–265
  42. ^ Millions Now Living Will Never Die, 1920, page 97, "Based upon the argument heretofore set forth, then, that the old order of things, the old world, is ending and is therefore passing away, and that the new order is coming in, and that 1925 shall mark the resurrection of the faithful worthies of old and the beginning of reconstruction, it is reasonable to conclude that millions of people now on the earth will be still on the earth in 1925. Then, based upon the promises set forth in the divine Word, we must reach the positive and indisputable conclusion that millions now living will never die."
  43. ^ Holden, Andrew (2002). Jehovah's Witnesses: Portrait of a Contemporary Religious Movement. Routledge. p. 1. ISBN 0-415-26609-2. 
  44. ^ "The Strong Cable of Chronology", Watch Tower, 15 July 1922, page 217, "The chronology of present truth is, to begin with, a string of dates... Thus far it is a chain, and no stronger than its weakest link. There exist, however, well established relationships among the dates of present-truth chronology. These internal connections of the dates impart a much greater strength than can be found in other [secular, archeological] chronologies. Some of them are of so remarkable a character as clearly to indicate that this chronology is not of man, but of God. Being of divine origin and divinely corroborated, present-truth chronology stands in a class by itself, absolutely and unqualifiedly correct."
  45. ^ The Watchtower, 1 May 1922, page 132, "To abandon or repudiate the Lord's chosen instrument means to abandon or repudiate the Lord himself, upon the principle that he who rejects the servant sent by the Master thereby rejects the Master. ... Brother Russell was the Lord's servant. Then to repudiate him and his work is equivalent to a repudiation of the Lord, upon the principle heretofore announced."
  46. ^ Jehovah's Witnesses—Proclaimers of God's Kingdom (Watch Tower Society, 1993), chapter 10.
  47. ^ Revelation – Its Grand Climax, Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, 1988, page 9.
  48. ^ "False Prophets". Reasoning From the Scriptures. Watchtower Bible and Tract Society. p.137:Have not Jehovah's Witnesses made errors in their teachings?. 
  49. ^ "To Whom Shall We Go but Jesus Christ?". Watchtower. 1 March 1979. p. 23. the “faithful and discreet slave” has alerted all of God’s people to the sign of the times indicating the nearness of God’s Kingdom rule. In this regard, however, it must be observed that this “faithful and discreet slave” was never inspired, never perfect. Those writings by certain members of the “slave” class that came to form the Christian part of God’s Word were inspired and infallible [the bible], but that is not true of other writings since. 
  50. ^ Why have there been changes over the years in the teachings of Jehovah’s Witnesses?,"Jehovah's Witnesses", Reasoning From the Scriptures, 1989, Watchtower Bible and Tract Society, page 205
  51. ^ "Allow No Place for the Devil!", The Watchtower, 15 March 1986, page 19
  52. ^ "Keep in Step With Jehovah’s Organization", Watchtower, 15 January 2001, page 18.
  53. ^ Matthew 24:14 KJV
  54. ^ Doctrine and Covenants 45:26
  55. ^ doctrine and covenants 45:26
  56. ^ a b c Yahya, Harun (2008-01-01). Clarity Amidst Confusion: Imam Mahdi and the End of Time. Global Publishing. Kindle Edition. p. 64. 
  57. ^ Richardson, Joel (7 April 2006). Antichrist: Islam's Awaited Messiah. Pleasant Word-A Division of WinePress Publishing. p. 284. ISBN 9781414104409. 
  58. ^ a b c d e f Hooper, Rev. Richard (20 April 2011). End of Days: Predictions of the End From Ancient Sources. Sedona, AZ. p. 156. 
  59. ^ [Quran 74:38]
  60. ^ Muhammad, S. Umar (1999). Muslims' Eschatological Discourses on Colonialism in Northern Nigeria. Oxford University Press. pp. 59–84. JSTOR 1466033. 
  61. ^ Esposito, John (2003). The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-512558-4, p.264
  62. ^ "Reward and Punishment", Encyclopedia of the Qur'an(2005)
  63. ^ Leor Halevi, https://www.nytimes.com/2007/05/04/opinion/04iht-edhalevi.1.5565834.html
  64. ^ Christine Huda Dodge. The Everything Understanding Islam Book: A complete guide to Muslim beliefs, practices, and culture. p. 182. 
  65. ^ John L. Esposito. What Everyone Needs To Know About Islam. p. 28. 
  66. ^ Javed Ahmad Ghamidi. Islam: A Concise Introduction. p. 46. 
  67. ^ a b c d Sahih Muslim
  68. ^ طلوع الشمس من مغربها [Rising of the sun from the west] (in Arabic). 
  69. ^ Alwi Shihab. Examining Islam in the West. p. 16. 
  70. ^ The Wrath of Yeshua - Page xxxv, Leo Paul Giampietro - 2008
  71. ^ "Prophecies of the Promised Messiah -- www.aaiil.org" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-03-27. 
  72. ^ The Review of Religions, January 2009, Vol.104, issue 1. p. 18-22
  73. ^ HFaith and Philosophy of Islam - Page 180, Shamim Akhter - 2009
  74. ^ Buck, Christopher (2004). "The eschatology of Globalization: The multiple-messiahship of Bahā'u'llāh revisited". In Sharon, Moshe. Studies in Modern Religions, Religious Movements and the Bābī-Bahā'ī Faiths. Boston: Brill. pp. 143–178. ISBN 90-04-13904-4. 
  75. ^ Smith, P. (1999). A Concise Encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford, UK: Oneworld Publications. pp. 98 & 247–248. ISBN 1-85168-184-1. 
  76. ^ Stephen Lambden. "Catastrophe, Armageddon and Millennium: some aspects of the Bábí-Baha'i exegesis of apocalyptic symbolism". Bahai-library.com. Retrieved 2011-11-12. 
  77. ^ a b Browne, Sylvia (2008-06-24). End of Days: Predictions and Prophecies About the End of the World. ISBN 9781440631412. 
  78. ^ Larrington (1996:266).
  79. ^ Larrington, Carolyne (1999). The Poetic Edda. Oxford World's Classics. ISBN 0-19-283946-2. 
  80. ^ Bellows, Henry Adams (2004). The Poetic Edda: The Mythological Poems. Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-43710-8. 
  81. ^ Byock, Jesse (2005). The Prose Edda. Penguin Classics. ISBN 0-14-044755-5. 
  82. ^ "Vishnu Purana". Astrojyoti.com. Retrieved 2011-11-21. 
  83. ^ "The Mahabharata, Book 6, Bhagavad Gita Chapter IV, Section 7". Sacred-texts.com. 12 Nov 2012. Retrieved 12 Nov 2012. 
  84. ^ "Maitreya". Brittanica Encyclopedia. 
  85. ^ Sutta Pitaka, Digha Nikaya, Pāli Canon. "Cakkavatti Sutta: The Wheel-turning Emperor". p. 26. Archived from the original on 5 May 2012. 
  86. ^ Vipassana.info, Pali Proper Names Dictionary: Metteyya
  87. ^ "《彌勒上生經》與《彌勒下生經》簡介" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-11-27. 
  88. ^ Conze, Edward (1959-07-30). Buddhist Scriptures. Penguin Classics. p. 256. ISBN 0140440887. 
  89. ^ a b Richard Gombrich, Theravada Buddhism: A Social History from Ancient Benares to Modern Colombo. Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1988, pages 83–85.

External links

www.gpedia.com

End times - RationalWiki

During the so-called End Times the Antichrist (often stated to be many people from Adolf Hitler to Barack Obama depending on the vogue of the time) will appear and stamp 666 all over the planet and on the foreheads of everyone who wasn't whooshed away to heaven in the rapture, though some Christians call the rapture HERESY!. For seven years there will be "tribulations," including war and famine. In the end, God will win over Satan and good Christians everywhere will live happily ever after.

While people may think that it's only recently that evangelists have been calling "time-at-the-bar" on existence, the End Times have been predicted as "just a few years away" for a long time (since long before 1000 CE).[1] Every specific date that has been predicted to set off "the end times" has so-far passed without incident and every historical villain who has been predicted to be the Antichrist, from Napoleon to Hitler, has turned out to have a relatively transient rule. Attempts to shoehorn historical events into being a version of the End Times usually fail because we are still here and Christians have never been teleported away in the rapture.

Eschaton is the academic term for the End Times. Eschatology is the academic study of the End Times.

Mathematical calculations[edit]

A 2010 article in American Atheist noted that the Jehovah's Witnesses Watchtower Society has actually computed, several times, the date of the "Parousia":[2]

“”The Jehovah's Witnesses have been kind and diligent enough to compute the exact year of the Parousia. They know exactly when it will occur! Their Watchtower Society's first calculation was slightly off, computing it to be 1874. That year came and went without the glorious Rapture they so sincerely desired. They tried again, coming up with 1914, a 365-day time period that remained intact until midnight Dec 31 arrived, proving them again wrong. The Jehovah's Witnesses remained undaunted, their next prediction being 1915. Neither Yahweh nor Jesus showed up that year to end the world, as far as I know.

“”Then the JWs regrouped and re-computed: 1918 seemed right at first, but that didn't work out. Next they predicted 1920 (failure, obviously). Next 1925, then 1941, then 1975, all clearly miscalculations.orig. fn 3 Perhaps they'll get it right for us one of these centuries. Kudos on the effort, Witnesses!

The usual American Protestant fundamentalist scenario[edit]

“”I'd like to play you folks a little song about another 'crazy' preacher you might've heard of. His name was Jesus. He was a... "one-eyed, one horned, flying purple people eater..."

—Unbreakable Kimmy Schmidt

The foundation of Israel in 1948 gave a major boost to the dispensationalist belief system; Israel's history of wars with its Arab neighbours did even more for it. After the Six Day War in 1967 and the Yom Kippur War in 1973, it seemed plausible to many fundamentalist Christians in the 1970s that Mideast turmoil may well be paving the way for the Battle of Armageddon.

Leaders of the movement such as Hal Lindsey claimed furthermore that the European Economic Community, which preceded the European Union, was a Revived Roman Empire, and would become the kingdom of the coming Antichrist or Beast. A Roman Empire, of course, also figured in the New Testament writers' vision of the future. The fact that in the early 1970s, there were (erroneously thought to be) seven nations in the European Economic Community was held to be significant; this aligned the Community with a seven-headed dragon in Revelation. This specific prophecy has required revision, but the idea of a Revived Roman Empire remains.

The Antichrist was supposed to be the dictatorial leader of a "one world government". He would promise peace to the world while leading Christians into apostasy, and impose a "one world money system" in which everyone had to have the Number of the Beast branded on them to buy or sell. Like the Roman emperors of old, he would force the world to unite in "one world religion", and impose horrible martyrdoms on surviving Christians. At some point after his appearance, a large number of Jews would convert to Christianity and preach the gospel after the Christians had been removed by the Rapture.

Believers in the system therefore scanned the headlines wondering if various world leaders might be the Antichrist, and wondering whether Mideast violence might be a sign of Armageddon. They feared such things as Social Security numbers and UPC barcodes, fearing that these tax identification numbers may be precursors to the dangerous Number of the Beast, whose receipt destines one's soul to damnation.

The Antichrist has as his allies the Beast and the Whore of Babylon, mysterious figures who run an apostate church or false religion. A world ravaged by plague and turmoil turns to the Antichrist to lead it, and who promises to deliver it. Eventually, the Antichrist musters an army to attack Israel. Gog and Magog have something to do with it. At the climax of the story, the Battle of Armageddon, Jesus returns in the Second Coming and stops the fighting.

The movement has spawned various timetables and countdowns to the apocalypse, whose general tendency can be summed up with the title of one of Lindsey's books, The 1980s: Countdown to Armageddon. The former Soviet Union played a large role in Lindsey's earlier interpretations; his later books understandably tone that down considerably, while new villains like Saddam Hussein take its place. The movement has strained relationships with conservative U.S. governments and the government of Israel, as some Jews think American Christians' supposed support of Israel is merely a cover for their hope of the destruction of Judaism during the end times.

It should be obvious from the foregoing that there is nothing in the Biblical apocalypses that forces these particular interpretations. The Seventh-day Adventists have their own tradition of millennialism arising from the nineteenth century Millerite movement that is distinct from contemporary dispensationalism. The prophecies have had to be revised several times in the light of changing current events. The whole belief system is often characterised by those who do not hold it, or who have abandoned it, as a mass paranoid delusion, full of ideas of reference that supposedly reveal the secret and sinister meaning that links unrelated events.

End times speculations have occasionally been made the subject of political controversy, especially in the United States when conservative Christians seek national political office. The implications of the prophecies that turmoil in the Middle East is inescapable, that nuclear war is predestined by Scripture, and that it will supernaturally lead to a divine utopia, give rise to some misgivings among unbelievers in the prophecies. James G. Watt, Ronald Reagan's Secretary of the Interior, once remarked that "my responsibility is to follow the Scriptures which call upon us to occupy the land until Jesus returns;" this was interpreted by political foes as meaning that we did not need to take care of the environment because Jesus was returning soon. Ronald Reagan himself was quoted in 1980 as saying that "we may be the generation that sees Armageddon," suggesting that he was familiar with the prophecies. Similar controversies have followed former United States Attorney General John Ashcroft.

End times questions and answers[edit]

There are numerous "signs" that point to the End Times coming. With a little rational thought and a little snark thrown in for entertainment value, it can be shown that these signs are either meaningless, or have been around so long that their use as a "sign" is somewhat limited.

Political factions[edit]

  • Fundie: But isn't Russia becoming defiant and returning to a Cold War stance?A: Why must a sovereign nation be compliant to the United States? Despite all the nuclear war mongering, the world didn't end during the Cold War. From a non-American perspective, the US is undoubtedly becoming a total asshat with regards to its warmongering and anti-environmental stances so Russia isn't solely to blame for becoming the "defiant" side regarding the End Times.
  • Fundie: But isn't the US currency falling?A: This is more of a sign that Americans like to buy imported oil and finished goods. Since we pay for them in dollars, we are shipping a lot of dollars overseas. There is more supply for greenbacks than demand. But still, you'd think the End Times would be global rather than applying only to Jesusland.
  • Fundie: What about China’s immense military power (200,000,000, as called out in Revelation)?A: China only has 2,250,000 active troops. Thus fails at least one direct prediction - although there are other interpretations about what the "200 million" actually represent.[3] At least 200,000,000 is about double the entire world's population at the time of Revelation's writing.[4]

Events[edit]

  • Fundie: What about the natural disasters increasing in record numbers?A: There is little evidence that the frequency of natural disasters is spiking. Reports of them are increasing due to media coverage and the severity of the death tolls increase because of the rising levels and concentrations of the global population. A few hundred years ago, an earthquake hitting a city would barely affect a few thousand people, now the same level of disaster could affect millions. In addition, the really big natural disasters such as super-volcanoes and meteor impacts have been very much lacking recently.
  • Fundie: What about all the celestial signs increasing?A: Name one recent celestial sign… well, there's the sun signs but these have always been there, and "planetary alignments" happen every so often and we're still here.
  • Fundie: What about crime rising in record numbers?A: Usually, figures about crime are open to interpretation; crime goes down, but violent crime goes up or vice versa. In the modern context, crime has been falling in the West for decades. In many cases, crimes are at all-time lows — some crimes, such as bank robbery in the U.S., are virtually extinct. Mass media reports of crime, particularly sensationalised ones, are going up because they tend to sell a lot of ad time by grabbing eyeballs. It's the train wreck phenomenon — we just can't look away.
  • Fundie: What about the fact that love for others is growing colder?A: And meanwhile we try to pass amendments to the Constitution to make sure same-sex couples who do have warm love for each other can't get married… As with all of these "signs," it's open to interpretation.

Religious upheaval[edit]

  • Fundie: But isn't Jerusalem becoming of interest to the entire world?A: Jerusalem is a holy city for the three Abrahamic religions. It has always been of interest.
  • Fundie: But isn't Apostate Christianity running rampant?A: Seriously, one person's apostasy is another person's orthodoxy.
  • Fundie: What about the One World religious movements gaining momentum?A: Christ said he would have one flock and one shepherd.[5]

See also[edit]

End Times doomsayers[edit]

References[edit]

rationalwiki.org

Questions about the End Times

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What is going to happen according to end times prophecy?

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What is the Second Coming and why is it important?

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Is the millennium literal or figurative?

Will there be a second chance for salvation after the Rapture?

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Is the pope, or the next pope, the antichrist?

Is the United States of America in Bible prophecy?

Who are the two witnesses in the book of Revelation?

Will there be a partial rapture?

What does the Bible say about an end times Temple in Jerusalem?

Who / What is the restrainer in 2 Thessalonians 2:6?

Will the generation that saw Israel re-formed as a nation still be alive for the Second Coming?

What do the seven churches in Revelation stand for?

What is the marriage supper of the Lamb?

What is the Preterist view of the end times?

Is partial preterism biblical? What do partial preterists believe?

How can I avoid being left behind in the rapture?

What does Revelation chapter 12 mean?

How are we to live our lives in light of Christ's return?

How can I understand the Book of Revelation?

What is the abomination of desolation?

What is the Parousia?

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What are Gog and Magog?

What is the day of the Lord?

What are the seventy sevens in Daniel 9:24-27?

Who will occupy the Millennial Kingdom?

Who are the four horsemen of the apocalypse?

Who are the twenty-four (24) elders in Revelation?

What is the whore of Babylon / mystery Babylon?

What are the seven seals and seven trumpets in the Book of Revelation?

What is the Illuminati conspiracy?

What is the Olivet Discourse?

What did Jesus mean when He said, "this generation will not pass"?

Was Jesus' statement to the disciples in Luke 9:27 (also Matthew 16:28; Mark 9:1) incorrect?

What are tribulation saints?

Will babies and young children be taken in the Rapture?

Does Bible prophecy predict that there will be a World War 3 (III, three) before the end times?

What is the time of Jacob's trouble?

How can we trust that Biblical prophecy can indeed predict the future?

Why is God going to release Satan after the 1000 years?

What is the Great Tribulation?

What is the year 2012 Mayan prophecy?

Does the Bible indicate that, in the end times, people will not be able to recognize the different seasons?

What does the Bible say about the end of the world?

Is Barack Obama the antichrist?

When will the Resurrection take place?

Does the Bible prophesy a one-world government and a one-world currency in the end times?

Will there be animal sacrifices during the millennial kingdom?

Who is the false prophet of the end times?

Who is Maitreya? Is Maitreya the antichrist?

What is the significance of a red heifer in the Bible? Is a red heifer a sign of the end times?

Surviving the end times - what do I need to know?

Islamic antichrist? Will the antichrist be a Muslim?

What happens at the final judgment?

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What are the strengths and weaknesses of the posttribulational view of the rapture (posttribulationism)?

What are the strengths and weaknesses of the pre-wrath view of the rapture?

What is inaugurated eschatology?

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Is it possible to know when Jesus is coming back?

What do the seven thunders in Revelation 10:1-7 mean?

Should Christians stockpile food/supplies in preparation for a possible future disaster?

What does it mean that Jesus will return like a thief in the night?

Is the last trumpet of 1 Thessalonians 4 the same as the seventh trumpet of Revelation?

What is the unholy trinity in the end times?

Is the war in heaven in Revelation 12 describing Satan's original fall or an end times angelic battle?

Could an alien deception be part of the end times?

What will be the end times one world religion?

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Does the Bible say that an increase in technology is a sign of the end times?

Why is God going to send a strong delusion in the end times?

What are the times of the Gentiles?

How can I overcome my fear of the end of days?

Does the Bible say anything about a black Pope in relation to the end times?

What is Nibiru?

Can the return of Christ truly be said to be imminent?

Who or what is Abaddon/Apollyon?

Why must Elijah return before the end times (Malachi 4:5-6)?

What are the seventy weeks of Daniel?

What is the prophecy of St. Malachy?

Does The Harbinger really predict America's future?

What are the three woes of Revelation?

Are we living in the end times?

Will David reign with Jesus in the Millennial Kingdom?

Does the Bible say the United Nations will have a role in the end times?

Does war with Syria have anything to do with the end times?

Why didn't Jesus return during the blood-red moon of 2015?

Will the Holy Spirit be present during the tribulation?

Will all Israel be saved in the end times?

Who is the man of lawlessness in 2 Thessalonians 2:1-12?

Are the sky trumpets people have been reporting signs of the end times?

Does the Bible say anything about Russia in relation to the end times?

What is the concept of "already but not yet"?

What is the blessed hope?

What does it mean that Jesus will come in the clouds (Revelation 1:7)?

What does it mean that there will be wars and rumors of wars before the end times?

Is 2017 a Jubilee year? Will Christ return in 2017?

Why is apocalyptic literature so strange?

How should a Christian react to all the doomsday predictions out there?

What is the Shemitah?

Do the news reports of rivers turning blood red have anything to do with the end times?

What biblical prophecies were fulfilled in AD 70?

Will there be a great apostasy / falling away during the end times?

Does China have a role in the end times?

What is the Revived Roman Empire?

Does the Old Testament truly predict a second advent of the Messiah?

What role does Iran play in the end times?

How can I be ready to be caught up in the rapture?

Why do Daniel and Revelation give varying counts of 1,260, 1,290, and 1,335 days for the tribulation?

What is apocalypticism?

What is historicism? What is the historicist interpretation of the book of Revelation?

Who is the beast of Revelation?

What is the image of the beast?

Is ISIS a sign of the end times?

What is the significance of the Eastern Gate of Jerusalem?

Is it possible for a person to be saved/forgiven after taking the mark of the beast?

Could an EMP attack be a part of the end times?

What does the Bible mean when it refers to the end of the age?

What is the mystery of iniquity?

What does it mean that heaven and earth will pass away?

What does it mean that there will be false christs in the end times?

What is realized eschatology?

What does it mean that the love of many will grow cold (Matthew 24:12)?

What is the significance of Ezekiel’s temple?

Is Donald Trump the Antichrist?

What is the concept of a secret rapture?

Should a Christian be a prepper or in any way involved with doomsday prepping?

Is Jesus coming soon?

What is millenarianism?

Is an eclipse a sign of the end times?

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Questions about the End Times

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Call of Warhammer: Beginning of The End Times mod for Medieval II: Total War: Kingdoms

[READ IT ALL FROM TOP TO BOTTOM]

Firstly, make sure you have a working install of Medieval II: Total War with the Kingdoms expansion. Also make sure none of your kingdoms expansions have been changed in any way(so if you run a mod by renaming say the Americas campaign you will have issues) Both Steam and retail versions work. If you have a pirated version or cracked version of the game, go and purchase medieval 2 with the kingdoms expansions.

Step 1: Download the latest version of Beginning of The End Times on this page (the 1.5 Beta).

Step 2: Unrar the mod using either WinRar, 7zip, or an equivalent extraction program able to handle .rar files. You should end up with a folder named BOTET containing more folders and the files warhammer.bat and configuration.cfg. If it contains another folder called BOTET, use the one that contains the warhammer.bat and configuration.cfg files.

Step 3: Drag that folder into your Medieval II Total War/mods folder, so it ends up Medieval II Total War/mods/BOTET.

Step 4: (Steam only) If you don't have a kingdoms.exe in your medieval 2 folder, copy medieval2.exe and rename the copy kingdoms.exe(do not put .exe in the name, the files are already an executable)

Step 5: Open the 4GB Patch (you have the link to download the file below this own message, simply scroll down the installation video) and direct it to your medieval2.exe in your Medieval II: Total War folder. If it patches correctly it will create a backup file in the same folder. Do the same thing for kingdoms.exe. Make sure you run the program as administrator.(right click on the patch, properties, compatibility and at the bottom you will see "run this program as an administrator" If you get an error trying to launch the game, delete the .exe files and rename the backup files to medieval2.exe and kingdoms.exe, then try "Large Address Aware" instead. It's the same as the 4gb patch, but might not cause that error.

Step 6: Run the game by double clicking warhammer.bat(it will just be called warhammer) in the BOTET folder. If you want, you can right click on warhammer.bat and make a shortcut to put anywhere you want, so you don't have to navigate to the mod folder everytime.

Excessive campaign map lag: Some with older system might find the campaign map very laggy now, if you find it is far worse then before we have a fix for you to try. In the mods folder you will see a configuration.txt. open in notepad. find the line that says

disable_file_cache = true (make it like this, look down)

;disable_file_cache = true (the ; makes the game ignore the line)

next you will need to rebuild the map.rwm. The game does this on its own but you have to delete the old one and start a new campaign to get it to rebuild. So, go to the BOTET folder. navigate to data/world/maps/base and you will see the map.rwm (delete this or drag to desktop(just in case)

then reload the mod start a campaign and the map.rwm will rebuild. might take a while dont worry this is normal the first time. See if that helps your excessive lag issues scrolling around the campaign map.

Advice: Play only Long campaigns, not Short ones.

Advice: To play sieges in Custom Battles first select fort, then the culture level, then the settlement level.

Advice: If you find old totalwar games give you poor fps for your system this might be why, go to your medieval2.exe and kingdoms.exe right click and go to properties/compatibility you will see a check box for "disable display scaling for high DPI settings" Make sure this is checked(or try it to see if you get an FPS gain) made a huge difference for me with ALL totalwar games.

Possible issues: Many settings that affect the game are found in the configuration.cfg file, which can be edited like a text file. If you want banners on or off, change show_banners = false to true, or true to false. Also make sure the log line looks like this: [log] to = logs/M2TW.system.log.txt #level = * tracelevel = * error#level=*script* trace

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Installation video tutorial thanks to Stan (WarhammerWeekendTimes):

4GB Patch Link: Ntcore.com

Advice: If you get an error 0xc000142 while applying the patch, that means you must update your .Net Framework. If you still can't apply, then use LARGE ADDRESS AWARE: Techpowerup.com

Forge of Realms: Overview
Sep 9 2017 News

For being an "indie game", Forge of Realms has very little "game" in it. This is primarily a tool to allow hobbyists and Dungeon Masters to dynamically...

BoTET on Youtube
May 1 2017 News

List of channels broadcasting Call Of Warhammer: Beginning of The End Times contents

1.5 BETA RELEASED!
Apr 24 2017 News

Ok guys here is the google drive link to the next version. Enjoy, its still a beta so don't suspect a totally finished product but compared with 1.01...

www.moddb.com


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