.32 , TeamSpeak3-Client-win32-3.0.0-betaXX.exe.64 , TeamSpeak3-Client-win64-3.0.0-betaXX.exe.
(ts3_translations_ru_v2.6.zip [128.59 Kb] (c: 32453)), , .
TeamSpeak ( , DJ-Andrey-sXe ).
ts3_translations_ru_v2.6.zip [128.59 Kb] (c: 32453)
[12.65 Mb] (c: 9470)
DJ-Andrey-sXe [6.56 Mb] (c: 6044)
( WindowsXP ).
, . .
TeamSpeak 3 Скачать бесплатно на русском
TeamSpeak - программное обеспечение для качественного голосового сообщения через Интернет. Программное обеспечение сервера TeamSpeak, способно обрабатывать тысячи одновременных клиентов и пользователей, которое обеспечивает качественные телеконференции, используемые как в личных целях, так и в коммерческих. Программное обеспечение бесплатное для некоммерческих предприятий, то есть простым "смертным" людям), в то время как у коммерческих предприятий, есть возможность стать частью лицензионной программы, говорится на основном сайте TeamSpeak.
Особенности программы TeamSpeak 3:
Теперь TeamSpeak 3 можно установить на самые популярные ОС, такие как: Windows (32-bit и 64-bit), Mac OS X и Linux (32-bit и 64-bit).
TeamSpeak 3 на сегодняшний день обзавелся качественным кодеком, который поддерживает такие популярные функции как автоматическая регулировка громкости микрофона, шумоподавления и эхо. Это позволяет осуществлять качественное общение между пользователями, так же в новой версии значительно снижена задержка отклика сигнала.
Поддержка дополнительного оборудования:
Такие компании как Logitech, поддерживают полную аппаратную часть G-keys3, что дает конечному пользователю дополнительные возможности при пользовании TeamSpeak 3.
При наличии соответствующего оборудования, колонки или наушники, звуковая карта с поддержкой системы 5.1 или 7.1, поддерживает функции 3D звучания.
Повышенная безопасность в TeamSpeak 3. Теперь не нужно постоянно вводить логин/пароль для каждого сервера, клиент запомнит его при первом подключении, и далее будет это делать автоматически.
Друзья и черный список:
Одна из новых функций в TeamSpeak 3, создание списков друзей и "недругов" по их уникальному идентификатору. Если вы занесли пользователя в черный список, даже при смене ника и выборе сервера, он все равно останется заглушенным.
В TeamSpeak 3 появляется новая функция - передача файлов. Все ваши файлы теперь хранятся на сервере TeamSpeak 3.
Скачать TeamSpeak 3 бесплатно:
- TeamSpeak 3 для Windows 32bit — XP, Vista, Windows 7 (Version 18.104.22.168) — СКАЧАТЬ
- TeamSpeak 3 для Windows 64bit — All 64bit platforms (Version 22.214.171.124) - СКАЧАТЬ
- TeamSpeak 3 для Mac OSX 10.4 or higher — 32bit (Version 126.96.36.199) - СКАЧАТЬ
Установка TeamSpeak 3:
После скачивание программы ее нужно установить. Нажимаем 2 раза на скачанный файл, запускается мастер установки, жмем «Next»:
Соглашаемся с лицензией пользователя, жмем «I Agree», жмем «Next»:
Выбираем путь куда будет установлена программа, по умолчанию это: C:\Program Files\TeamSpeak 3 Client , жмем «Next»:
Далее программа установки рекомендует установить нам новую функцию "In-game overlay, Overwolf" ставим галочку, если вам нужна эта функция, и убираем если не нужна, жмем «Next»:
Последний шаг установки, жмем "Install":
Дожидаемся окончания установки, если вы все сделали правильно, у вас появится окно (см. скриншот ниже) жмем "Finish".
Программа готова к использованию. Запускаем программу, ярлык с которой у вас должен был появиться на рабочем столе, кликаем по нему два раза.
Русификация Teamspeak 3
Для того что бы установить русский язык, заходим в настройки программы Alt+P, первая вкладка "Aplication", напротив выбора языка нажимаем на ссылку "Get more translations". Нас перенаправит на страницу с дополнительными настройками программы, плагинами, скинами, языками, то что нам нужно, выбираем категорию "translations":
Находим в ней нужный нам Русский язык, нажимаем, нас перенаправит на страницу скачивания файла:
Качаем архив с русификатором - СКАЧАТЬ
Распаковываем. Далее нам нужно:
- Закрыть TeamSpeak 3
- Скопировать из архива русификатора папки «styles» и «translations» в папку «C:\Program Files\TeamSpeak 3 Client»
- Согласиться на замену файлов
- Запустить TeamSpeak 3
- Открыть окно настроек программы «Setting -> Options -> Application» и выбрать язык «Russian».
- Перезапустить TeamSpeak 3
При первом запуске teamspeak, программа предложит вам пройти мастер установки (Stup wizard), в которой вы сможете:
- Выбрать себе никнейм.
- Настроить микрофон.
- Протестировать громкость микрофона.
- Установить "горячие клавиши"
- Выбрать настройки воспроизведения.
Итак программа практически готова к использованию, осталось только подключиться к вашему серверу, что бы это сделать, нужно нажать на кнопку «Connections».
Подключение к серверу Тимспик
Далее нужно вписать параметры сервера:
- В строке «Server Address» вписываем IP адрес сервера.
- В строке «Nickname» вписываем имя.
- В строке «Server Password» вводим пароль сервера (не обязателен в зависимости от настроек сервера).
- Нажимаем «Connect».
После этого мы попадаем на наш сервер, где можем смело общаться со своими друзьями.
Закладка Connections [Подключения]:
- «Connect» Подключение.
- «Disconnect from current» Отключение от текущего сервера.
- «Disconnect from all» Отключение от всех серверов.
- «Quit» Закрыть TS.
Закладка Bookmarks [Список серверов]:
- «Add to Bookmarks» Добавить сервер в список.
- «Bookmarks» Открывает окно с добавленными серверами.
Закладка Self [Вы]:
- «Capture Profile» Профиль для настройки записи микрофона.
- «Playback Profile» Профиль для настройки воспроизведении звука.
- «HotKeys Profile» Горячие клавиши.
- «Set Away» Установить «Отошел».
- «Activate Microphone» Активировать микрофон.
- «Mute Speakers/Headphones» Отключить Динамики/наушники.
- «Change Nickname» Изменить ник.
- «Request Talk Power» Запрос на разговор.
- «Set Phonetic Nickname» Указать фонетический никнейм.
- «Set Avatar» Установить автар.
- «Delete Avatar» Удалить Аватар
- «Connection Info» Информация подключения
Закладка Permissions [Допуск]:
- «Server Groups» Группы сервера.
- «Client Permissions» Допуски Клиентов.
- «Channel Permissions» Допуски Каналов.
- «Channel Groups» Группы Каналов.
- «Channel Client Permissions» Допуски клиентов в каналах.
- «Use Token» Воспользоваться Билетиком.
- «Token Manager» Управление Билетами.
Закладка Tools [Инструменты]:
- «Contacts» Контакты.
- «Collected URLs» Открывает лог ссылок в чате.
- «File Transfers» Передача файлов.
- «Offline Messages» офлайн сообщение.
- «Client Log» Лог клиента.
- «Ban List» банлист.
- «Complaints List» жалобы.
- «ServerQuery» «запросы сервера».
- «Server Log» лог сервера.
- «Start Recording» Включить запись.
- «Stop Recording» Остановить запись.
Закладка Settings [Настройки]:
- «Setup Wizard» мастер настройки.
- «Identities» прочее настройки TS.
- «Plugins» Плагины.
- «Options» Опции, основная настройка TS.
Закладка Help [Помощь]:
- «Visit TeamSpeak Webpage» Посмотреть веб-страницу TS.
- «Visit TeamSpeak Support Forum» Посмотреть форум поддержки TS.
- «View changelog» Просмотреть лог обновлений.
- «Check for Updates» Проверка обновлений.
- «About TeamSpeak 3» Информация о TS 3.
Канал по умолчанию. Канал с паролем. Администратор сервера. Модератор канала. Оператор канала.
«Пользователь с часами» — АФК «Away From Keyboard» — отошел.«Микрофон перечеркнутый» — отключение микрофона.«Динамик перечеркнутый» — отключение колонок/наушников.«Глазик» — видимость всех пользователей, во всех каналах.«Человечек с ключом» — Друг, добавленный пользователь.
Все готово к использованию, еще раз спасибо что прочитали наш гайд по настройке TeamSpeak 3. Удачного общения!
Spike | Land Before Time Wiki
Spike (a.k.a. Gentle Giant Spike, as he is called on the official site, and referred to as by fans) is the tritagonist in The Land Before Time and a major character in the Land Before Time sequels and television series. He is a Stegosaurus, which is referred to as a "Spiketail" in the films and TV series. He is most well known for his laconic behavior; only having uttered a couple of words throughout the series' run, and for his large appetite. Spike is raised by main-character Ducky's family, since his family was lost at the time of his birth, and possibly deceased. Best friends with his foster sister, Spike is usually listed in fifth place of the main characters, after Littlefoot, Cera, Ducky and Petrie and before Chomper and Ruby, but is sometimes listed in third place, after Cera and before Ducky. Despite being well received by critics of the films, and being a favorite of director Don Bluth during the production of the original The Land Before Time, the character's cultural impact has been considerably small.
Spike has a big appetite, and constantly eats plants that are in his sight. When Spike was still unhatched, his parents had left his egg in a nest surrounded by grass. After he hatched, he quickly consumed the grass. Often, food serves as a motivation for Spike, such as in The Land Before Time VI: The Secret of Saurus Rock, when the main characters are crossing the canyon by means of hopping on the rocky pillars. Spike is afraid to do so, until he notices some ample bushes on the other side, upon which he vigorously hops across and delves into them. Later, in The Land Before Time VIII: The Big Freeze, Spike sniffs out the patch of greenfood the other main characters and Mr. Thicknose have discovered in the Mysterious Beyond, and leads the starving herd of Spike Tails down to it.
Often, the other characters are put in tight situations because of Spike's eating. In The Land Before Time V: The Mysterious Island, while the children are paddling on a log to get from the island back to the mainland, Spike finds some leaves on a branch on the log, and struggles to reach them, despite Littlefoot's warnings that this is causing the log to turn around. Also, in The Land Before Time VII: The Stone of Cold Fire, while the children are crossing the vines over the canyon, Spike takes interest in a yellow flower growing out of the vine, and chomps on it; incidentally biting through the vine and causing the children to swing into a cave in the middle of the cliffs.
In The Land Before Time V: The Mysterious Island, when Spike and the others arrive at the Big Water (ocean), he swallows some seawater which enters his mouth despite the salty flavor of seawater. He drinks seawater twice again in The Land Before Time IX: Journey to Big Water.
Spike's most notable characteristic is being the "mute" among the main characters, as he almost never speaks. However, as his foster sister, Ducky says in The Land Before Time IV: Journey through the Mists he can indeed speak when he feels like doing so. In the TV episode "Through the Eyes of a Spiketail", in which many of the events are seen through Spike's perspective, and Spike's thoughts are heard out loud, it is revealed that Spike chooses to be silent in order to hear the "singing" of the greenfood before deciding what he wants to eat; he comments that his friends do not hear these "songs" because they are always talking. He also prefers not to talk because he dislikes the excessive arguing his friends often get into. However, in times of great importance or peril, he finds that his silence can be a hindrance, although it is not given why he does not choose to speak in these circumstances.
The only times that Spike has truly spoken in the series are in The Land Before Time IV: Journey Through the Mists, when Ducky is nearly eaten by Dil, and he shouts her name ("Duh...duh...DUCKY!") , The Land Before Time VII: The Stone of Cold Fire when he sings the word "Good" in Good Inside, and in The Land Before Time VIII: The Big Freeze; when he shouts "Mama!" while drowning in the hot water. He has articulated in other ways on other occasions. In The Land Before Time XI: Invasion of the Tinysauruses, he mutters to Petrie while he and Ducky are telling Littlefoot that they aren't sure why they're mad at him; what he says sounds like "Yeah. Uh-huh.", In The Land Before Time II: The Great Valley Adventure when Littlefoot and his friends find out what to play, Spike made a noise that sounded like "I don't Know"! and Furthermore, in the Finnish version of the original movie, when he and the others are exhausted from climbing up a hill of rocks, he says a single word; "ruokaa", which translates into English as "food".
Spike also scat sings to many songs in the films and TV series. He mimicked "Sharptooth speak" in The Land Before Time V: The Mysterious Island.
Screenshot of Spike, reflecting his relaxed, laid-back and easygoing nature.
Spike is generally very laid-back and relaxed. Despite never talking, he is generally connected with what his friends are doing. Along with explaining his silence, Spike reveals in his thoughts that he is just as intelligent as his friends, and that he is quite observant; noticing the traits of everyone and everything around him almost immediately. He is also very confident and brave, although he admits to preferring a sedentary lifestyle; staying home and eating, over adventuring with the others, as he views most of their adventures as being too dangerous, but out of loyalty he follows his friends nonetheless. He also cares deeply for them, pushing himself to go into dangerous situations to save their lives. Don Bluth has described him as "a pure soul, simple, accommodating, and eager to please".
Ducky witnesses as her future foster-brother, Spike, hatches. The image in the Gallery Below shows Spike feeding on the grass surrounding his nest, seconds later.
When Spike was still in his egg, he was separated from his biological parents. He was adopted as a brother by Ducky, and readily accepted by her parents and siblings as part of the family, despite the fact that most of the characters tended to show prejudice towards others not part of their species. As his father is rarely seen, and has never had a speaking role, his exact relationship with him is uncertain, but his mother, a prominent recurring character, is shown to be very devoted to him. She is shown to treat him equally with her biological children, while still bearing in mind that he is a spike tail, and thus has many different needs from swimmers.
Spike seems to get along well with his siblings, but he remains closest to Ducky. Their relationship was briefly rifted, however, in The Land Before Time VIII: The Big Freeze, after his snoring (referred to as "Sleep Rumbling" by the characters) kept Ducky awake at night, and after he ate the lunch their mother had packed specifically for her. Ducky consulted Cera on how to express her anger, and gave Spike the cold shoulder. Spike felt depressed over this, until he met Tippy, a boy from the wandering Spike Tail herd who had entered the Great Valley. After Spike spent more and more time with Tippy and the herd, and eventually migrated away from the valley during the cold times with them, Ducky saw what her actions had done, and went out after Spike. At the end of the film, when they were reunited, Ducky claimed never to let Spike's snoring get in the way of their relationship again.
Spike often expresses concern for Ducky when she is unhappy, such as in The Land Before Time VII: The Stone of Cold Fire, when Ducky feels pity for Petrie after Cera insulted him, Spike inquires if Ducky is hungry, before she explains what is actually bothering her. He also gives her gifts out of brotherly kindness; an example being in "Search for the Sky Color Stones", when he is the first to find a sky color stone, and offers it to Ducky (though she mistakes him to be trying to eat it).
Other main characters
Cera annoyedly considers Spike's eating in the song "Family", from The Land Before Time VIII: The Big Freeze.
Cera often gets irritated by Spike's eating habits, and the problems they often cause, as in The Land Before Time VII: The Stone of Cold Fire, when Spike eats a flower on the vine the gang is using to cross the canyon, and bites through the vine, sending them swinging into a cave. Cera angrily tells him not to do such a thing again. Cera notes with disdain upon Spike's eating when singing in the song "Family" from The Land Before Time VIII: The Big Freeze, and in the television episode "The Canyon of Shiny Stones"; when Cera wants to make up for losing Tria's shiny stone, and Petrie suggests bringing her tonnes of treesweets, she remarks that Spike will eat them all before they get to her. Spike is shown to occasionally be neutral towards Cera's opinions, or upset by them, as in the aforementioned instance from the seventh film, he calmly shrugs her order off, and in the aforementioned episode, he blithely nods in response to Cera's statement, but frowns upon realizing that it was a biting remark.
Cera is also shown to be annoyed by Spike's habit of going off-course on their adventures in the episode "Through the Eyes of a Spiketail". At the same time, each of them is shown to be concerned for each other in times of trouble, as when Spike is nearly carried off by the current in the episode "The Star Day Celebration", and the vine the others use to pull him to safety snaps, Cera hastily fetches a long stick to perform the task with. Spike has helped Cera on other occasions, as in The Land Before Time V: The Mysterious Island, when Cera is flung off the log by the swimming sharptooth, and swims back, Spike and Littlefoot help her up again. The two have collaborated on tasks as well, such as in The Land Before Time II: The Great Valley Adventure, when the two of them pushed a rock onto Papa Sharptooth's head while he and his wife were attacking the Great Valley in search of Chomper.
Spike and Petrie seem to get along well together, and Petrie usually tries to help or encourage Spike whenever he is in trouble or reluctant to do something. In The Land Before Time VI: The Secret of Saurus Rock, when Spike is afraid to jump on the pillars in the canyon, Petrie urges him on, telling him it will be alright. Later, when Spike gets stuck in the hole in the hollow tree trunk over the same canyon, and the Allosaurus which had been pursuing the children begins to near them, Petrie and Littlefoot together try to help him get free in time.
Chomper covers Spike's eyes with mud, so as to let him rely on his nose alone while seeking Ducky, in "The Lonely Journey".
Spike seems to be on good terms with Littlefoot, Ruby and Chomper. Ruby seems to understand Spike almost as well as Ducky does, stating at the end of the episode "Through the Eyes of a Spiketail" that she sometimes wishes she were more like him. Chomper voluntarily teaches Spike to use his "sniffer" (Chomper's affectionate term for his nose) for tracking things down, like he does with his own, in the episode "The Lonely Journey". Littlefoot seemed the most sorry, next to Ducky, that Spike was departing in The Land Before Time VIII: The Big Freeze, and explained to the others with Mama Swimmer's help that Spike was still family to them because of their strong friendship with him, regardless of his differences.
Though Spike didn't seem to have issues with Chomper in the 2nd film, he agreed with Cera, Ducky, and Petrie that he might turn on them when he gets older in the 5th film.
Spike (center), together with his sister Ducky (left) and Tippy.
Spike quickly befriended Tippy, a young Spiketail boy from a wandering herd, when the herd arrived in the Great Valley in The Land Before Time VIII: The Big Freeze. Tippy's mother invited Spike to meet the rest of the herd, and upon doing so, Spike immediately fitted in with them, and began spending most of his time with them. When the herd had to leave the Great Valley, due to a food shortage brought on by the cold times (winter), the herd invited Spike to join them, though he only accepted when Ducky angrily told him to.
In the TV episode "The Forbidden Friendship", when Tippy and his herd return to the Great Valley, the leader of the herd gets into an argument with Mr. Threehorn, and each side is estranged from each other, but Spike and Tippy continue to play together in secret.
Spike, as he appears in the later sequels.
The character of Spike was inspired by Don Bluth's pet Chowhound, Cubby. Although Bluth mentioned in an interview in 1990 that he did not really care for the film, which he thought had been too slow-paced, he has said that he likes the character Spike; describing him as "a pure soul, simple, accommodating, and eager to please."
In The Land Before Time II: The Great Valley Adventure, Spike's design was modified; he no longer had any small spikes on his tail and has less developed ridges along his back. This is presumably to make him easier for the animators to draw, but, compared to the character Cera's modification, Spike's isn't as drastic.
In the TV series he was modified again to not have horizontal lines across his belly in many scenes. This is again presumably to make him easier for the animators to draw, as TV series are usually lower budget than movies. A part from a slight color change, Spike's like the most of characters in the series drawn less detailed and takes a drastic change in his face, with his snout be slimmer and yet longer (though there are scenes where he is drawn with his designs from the movies).
In the original Land Before Time, Spike laughs on one occasion; his voice actor is unknown (although rumored to be the uncredited Frank Welker). Although with little dialogue, Spike has been voiced by Rob Paulsen from The Land Before Time II: The Great Valley Adventure to present, with the exception of The Land Before Time VI: The Secret of Saurus Rock in which the character's voice is credited as being provided by Jeff Bennett. In the Land Before Time episode "Through the Eyes of a Spiketail", Paulsen uses a deep voice when speaking the character's thoughts.
Hal Hinson of The Washington Post described Spike as "blobby and lethargic" in his review on The Land Before Time. British journalist MJ Simpson, in his review on The Land Before Time II: The Great Valley Adventure, considered the character to be "the dinosaur equivalent of the 'fat kid'". In her review on the fourth movie, The Land Before Time IV: Journey through the Mists, Bonnie Sayers of Epinion.com said she was pleased with the scene in which Spike unexpectedly calls for Ducky when she is nearly eaten by Dil. On Digitally Obsessed.com, Dale Dobson said the plot in The Land Before Time VIII: The Big Freeze revolving around Spike choosing between his family and the wandering Stegasaurus herd was genuinely emotional, and made such issues surrounding family and diversity easy for viewing children to understand. Brian Webster of Apollo Movie Guide said on that plot in The Big Freeze that he was alright with Spike effectively "having his cake and eating it too", as he did not approve of the idea of having cartoon characters teaching young children about the more difficult life lessons, namely those regarding family break-up, cross-cultural adoption and blended families. Nor did he believe that most parents would.
Spike's personal logo on the official Land Before Time website, featuring his real-world nickname, "Gentle Giant Spike".
Although considerably popular with critics and fans of the series, the character Spike has not had a very noticeable influence on culture. At the same time, fans often use the nickname given to Spike on the official Land Before Time website, "Gentle Giant Spike", when referencing the character.
The character's most notable impact is in merchandise. To promote The Land Before Time when it first hit the theatres in 1988, Amblin Entertainment, in an alliance with Pizza Hut, issued handpuppets of Spike, along with Littlefoot, Cera, Ducky, and Petrie. Many toys and other merchandise related to the character, including plush dolls, beanbags, action figures, and others have since been issued.
Spike is the main figure on the front cover of the DVD Through the Eyes of a Spiketail, due to the DVD containing the episode of the same name, among others.
References in media
- The original main characters (Littlefoot, Cera, Ducky, Petrie, and Spike) are altogether referenced in question 43 of "Test 6: Animation", in Test-Prep Your IQ with the Essentials of Film, in which the question concerns which character is not a dinosaur.
- They are referenced together again in the "Throwback Trivia" in The Good Book for Great Times by Connor Pritchard and Dominic Russo.
- For whatever odd reason, Spike is shown proper sized in the brief moment he hatches from his egg, but, after that, is shown appearing much larger, a size he keeps for many more movies.
- Spike has so far appeared in all of the films, and all but one of the episodes of the television series. He does not appear in "The Great Egg Adventure", because he is at the mud pools, together with Cera and Ruby. The mud pools play no part in the story.
- Spike was incorrectly referred to as an Ankylosaurus in the 1989 book Geolog, by the Geological Association of Canada. This is most likely due to the main characters being made up of a majority of Cretaceous dinosaurs from North America, however this principal might not be the case since Littlefoot had been referred to as a Brachiosaurus, rather than a Alamosaurus, which closely resembles an Apatosaurus.
- ↑ Fans compare The Land Before Time's core characters with the Toronto Raptors hroman.wordpress.com
- ↑ The Land Before Time DVD
- ↑ 3.03.1The Animated Movie Guide by Jerry Beck. Published 2005, Chicago Review Press. ISBN 1556525915 Page 138
- ↑ 4.04.1The Animated Films of Don Bluth
- ↑ Hal Hinson's review on The Land Before Time (November 18th, 1988) www.washingtonpost.com Retrieved on April 19th, 2008.
- ↑ British journalist MJ Simpson's review of The Land Before Time II: The Great Valley Adventure, on his official website. Retrieved on December 4th, 2008.
- ↑ Bonnie Sayers' review of The Land Before Time IV: Journey through the Mists, on May 13th, 2001 www.epinion.com No. 22314520196 Retrieved on April 13th, 2008
- ↑ Dale Dobson's review on The Big Freeze www.digitallyobsessed.com Retrieved on April 23rd, 2008.
- ↑ Brian Webster's review on The Land Before Time VIII: The Big Freeze www.apolloguide.com Retrieved on April 23rd, 2008.
- ↑ Photograph of original Pizza Hut Spike handpuppet, at www.collectorsconnection.com. Retrieved on February 1st, 2009.
- ↑ 14" The Land Before Time: Spike Plush Doll, item page at www.amazon.com. Retrieved on February 1st, 2009.
- ↑ The Land Before Time: 9" Spike Plush Doll, item page at www.amazon.com. Retrieved on February 1st, 2009.
- ↑ 10" The Land Before Time Spike Plush Toy, item page at www.amazon.com. Retrieved on February 1st, 2009.
- ↑ Christmas Spike doll with hat, photograph at www.collectorsconnection.com. Retrieved on February 1st, 2009.
- ↑ 8" Spike beanbag plush figure, photograph at www.collectorsconnection.com. Retrieved on February 1st, 2009.
- ↑ Photograph of Spike action figure from Burger King, at collectorsquest.com. Retrieved on March 3rd, 2009.
- ↑ Photograph of Art Pad Kit of Spike, from Wendy's, at www.collectorsconnection.com. Retrieved on February 1st, 2009.
- ↑ Test-Prep Your IQ with the Essentials of Film By David Alan Herzog, Arco. Page 111. Published 2003, Peterson's. ISBN 0768911907 . Retrieved on July 24th, 2008.
- ↑ Page 68, The Good Book for Great Times, by Connor Pritchard and Dominic Russo. Published by Adams Media, 2010. ISBN 1440505950/ISBN 9781440505959 
- ↑ Geolog; page 45. Written and published by the Geological Association of Canada, 1989, Digitized 22 Sep 2008. (). Retrieved on March 2nd, 2009.
Spike-timing-dependent plasticity - Wikipedia
Spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) is a biological process that adjusts the strength of connections between neurons in the brain. The process adjusts the connection strengths based on the relative timing of a particular neuron's output and input action potentials (or spikes). The STDP process partially explains the activity-dependent development of nervous systems, especially with regards to long-term potentiation and long-term depression.
Under the STDP process, if an input spike to a neuron tends, on average, to occur immediately before that neuron's output spike, then that particular input is made somewhat stronger. If an input spike tends, on average, to occur immediately after an output spike, then that particular input is made somewhat weaker hence: "spike-timing-dependent plasticity". Thus, inputs that might be the cause of the post-synaptic neuron's excitation are made even more likely to contribute in the future, whereas inputs that are not the cause of the post-synaptic spike are made less likely to contribute in the future. The process continues until a subset of the initial set of connections remain, while the influence of all others is reduced to 0. Since a neuron produces an output spike when many of its inputs occur within a brief period, the subset of inputs that remain are those that tended to be correlated in time. In addition, since the inputs that occur before the output are strengthened, the inputs that provide the earliest indication of correlation will eventually become the final input to the neuron.
In 1973, M. M. Taylor suggested that if synapses were strengthened for which a presynaptic spike occurred just before a postsynaptic spike more often than the reverse (Hebbian learning), while with the opposite timing or in the absence of a closely timed presynaptic spike, synapses were weakened (anti-Hebbian learning), the result would be an informationally efficient recoding of input patterns. This proposal apparently passed unnoticed in the neuroscientific community, and subsequent experimentation was conceived independently of these early suggestions.
Early experiments on associative plasticity were carried out by W. B. Levy and O. Steward in 1983 and examined the effect of relative timing of pre and postsynaptic action potentials at millisecond level on plasticity. Bruce McNaughton contributed much to this area, too. In studies on neuromuscular synapses carried out by Y. Dan and M. M. Poo in 1992, and on the hippocampus by D. Debanne, B. Gähwiler, and S. Thompson in 1994, showed that asynchronous pairing of postsynaptic and synaptic activity induced long-term synaptic depression. However, STDP was more definitively demonstrated by Henry Markram in his postdoc period till 1993 in Bert Sakmann's lab (SFN and Phys Soc abstracts in 1994–1995) which was only published in 1997. C. Bell and co-workers also found a form of STDP in the cerebellum. Henry Markram used dual patch clamping techniques to repetitively activate pre-synaptic neurons 10 milliseconds before activating the post-synaptic target neurons, and found the strength of the synapse increased. When the activation order was reversed so that the pre-synaptic neuron was activated 10 milliseconds after its post-synaptic target neuron, the strength of the pre-to-post synaptic connection decreased. Further work, by Guoqiang Bi, Li Zhang, and Huizhong Tao in Mu-Ming Poo's lab in 1998, continued the mapping of the entire time course relating pre- and post-synaptic activity and synaptic change, to show that in their preparation synapses that are activated within 5-20 ms before a postsynaptic spike are strengthened, and those that are activated within a similar time window after the spike are weakened. This phenomenon has been observed in various other preparations, with some variation in the time-window relevant for plasticity. Several reasons for timing-dependent plasticity have been suggested. For example, STDP might provide a substrate for Hebbian learning during development, or, as suggested by Taylor in 1973, the associated Hebbian and anti-Hebbian learning rules might create informationally efficient coding in bundles of related neurons. Works from Y. Dan's lab advanced to study STDP in in vivo systems.
Postsynaptic NMDA receptors are highly sensitive to the membrane potential (see coincidence detection in neurobiology). Due to their high permeability for calcium, they generate a local chemical signal that is largest when the back-propagating action potential in the dendrite arrives shortly after the synapse was active (pre-post spiking). Large postsynaptic calcium transients are known to trigger synaptic potentiation (Long-term potentiation). The mechanism for spike-timing-dependent depression is less well understood, but often involves either postsynaptic voltage-dependent calcium entry/mGluR activation, or retrograde endocannabinoids and presynaptic NMDARs.
From Hebbian rule to STDP
According to the Hebbian rule, synapses increase their efficiency if the synapse persistently takes part in firing the postsynaptic target neuron. An often-used simplification is those who fire together, wire together, but if two neurons fire exactly at the same time, then one cannot have caused, or taken part in firing the other. Instead, to take part in firing the postsynaptic neuron, the presynaptic neuron needs to fire just before the postsynaptic neuron. Experiments that stimulated two connected neurons with varying interstimulus asynchrony confirmed the importance of temporal precedence implicit in Hebb's principle: the presynaptic neuron has to fire just before the postsynaptic neuron for the synapse to be potentiated. In addition, it has become evident that the presynaptic neural firing needs to consistently predict the postsynaptic firing for synaptic plasticity to occur robustly, mirroring at a synaptic level what is known about the importance of contingency in classical conditioning, where zero contingency procedures prevent the association between two stimuli.
Uses in artificial neural networks
The concept of STDP has been shown to be a proven learning algorithm for forward-connected artificial neural networks in pattern recognition. Recognising traffic, sound or movement using Dynamic Vision Sensor (DVS) cameras has been a recent area of research. Correct classifications with a high degree of accuracy with only minimal learning time has been shown.
A general approach, replicated from the core biological principles, is to apply a window function (Δw) to each synapse in a network. The window function will increase the weight (and therefore the connection) of a synapse when the parent neuron fires just before the child neuron, but will decrease otherwise.
Several variations of the window function have been proposed to allow for a range of learning speeds and classification accuracy.
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